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ꯑꯥꯟꯗ꯭ꯔꯦ-ꯃꯦꯔꯤ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦ ( UK . : / ˈ ɒ̃ p ɛər , æ m -/, US .: / ˈ æ ꯑꯦꯝ ꯄꯤ ɪər / ; [꯱] French: [ɑ̃pɛʁ] ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ; ꯲꯰ ꯖꯅꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯱꯷꯷꯵– ꯱꯰ ꯖꯨꯟ ꯱꯸꯳꯶) [꯲] ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯐꯤꯖꯤꯁꯤꯁ꯭ꯠ, ꯃꯦꯊꯃꯦꯇꯤꯛꯁ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯂꯦꯏ ꯀꯦꯊꯣꯂꯤꯛ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯝꯃꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ "ꯏꯂꯦꯛꯠꯔꯣꯗꯥꯏꯅꯥꯃꯤꯛꯁ" ꯍꯥꯏꯅ ꯀꯧꯕ ꯀ꯭ꯂꯥꯁꯤꯀꯦꯜ ꯏꯂꯦꯛꯠꯔꯣꯃꯦꯒ꯭ꯅꯦꯇꯤꯖꯃꯒꯤ ꯁꯥꯏꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯂꯤꯡꯈꯠꯄꯥ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯣꯂꯤꯅꯣꯏꯗ (ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯁꯦꯃꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯋꯥꯍꯩ ꯑꯃꯥ) ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯏꯂꯦꯛꯠꯔꯤꯀꯦꯜ ꯇꯦꯂꯤꯒ꯭ꯔꯥꯐꯒꯨꯝꯕ ꯑꯦꯞꯂꯤꯀꯦꯁꯟ ꯀꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯏꯟꯚꯦꯟꯇꯔꯁꯨ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤ ꯫ ꯑꯣꯇꯣꯗꯤꯗꯛꯇ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯑꯦꯀꯥꯗꯦꯃꯤ ꯑꯣꯐ ꯁꯥꯏꯟꯁꯦꯁꯀꯤ ꯊꯧꯃꯤ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯏꯀꯣꯜ ꯄꯣꯂꯤꯇꯦꯛꯅꯤꯛ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯀꯣꯂꯦꯖ ꯗꯦ ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯄ꯭ꯔꯣꯐꯦꯁꯔ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫

ꯏꯂꯦꯛꯇ꯭ꯔꯤꯛ ꯀꯔꯦꯟꯠ ꯃꯥꯄꯜꯒꯤ ꯑꯦꯁ.ꯑꯥꯏ.ꯒꯤ ꯌꯨꯅꯤꯠ, ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯤꯌꯥꯔ, ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯃꯤꯡ ꯊꯣꯟꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤꯁꯨ ꯏꯐꯦꯜ ꯇꯋꯥꯔꯗꯥ ꯏꯔꯤꯕꯥ ꯃꯤꯡ ꯷꯲ꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯫

ꯉꯜꯂꯤꯉꯩꯒꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯁꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯑꯦꯟꯂꯥꯏꯇꯦꯟꯃꯦꯟꯠꯀꯤ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ ꯊꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯑꯥꯟꯗ꯭ꯔꯦ-ꯃꯦꯔꯤ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯥ ꯏꯪ ꯱꯷꯷꯵ ꯒꯤ ꯖꯅꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯲꯰ꯗꯥ ꯄꯣꯛꯈꯤ, ꯖꯤꯟ-ꯖꯦꯀꯁ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦ, ꯁꯦꯜ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯇꯥꯟꯕ ꯂꯂꯣꯟ-ꯏꯇꯤꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯖꯤꯟ ꯑꯦꯟꯊꯣꯅꯤ ꯗꯦꯁꯨꯇꯤꯌꯔ-ꯁꯥꯔꯁꯤ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯒꯤ ꯃꯆꯥꯅꯨꯄꯤꯗꯥ ꯄꯣꯛꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯑꯉꯥꯡ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯉꯩꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯏꯟꯈꯠꯂꯛꯄꯥ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯂꯤꯌꯟꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯥꯛꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯄꯣꯂꯦꯃꯤꯑꯣ-ꯑꯣ-ꯃꯣꯟꯇ-ꯗ-ꯑꯣꯔꯗꯥ ꯂꯩꯕ ꯏꯃꯨꯡꯒꯤ ꯄ꯭ꯔꯣꯄꯔꯇꯤꯗꯥ ꯂꯦꯟꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯳] ꯃꯥꯏꯄꯥꯛꯂꯕ ꯂꯂꯣꯟꯕꯥ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯕ ꯖꯤꯟ-ꯖꯦꯀꯁ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯖꯤꯟ-ꯖꯦꯀꯁ ꯔꯨꯁꯣꯒꯤ ꯐꯤꯂꯣꯁꯣꯐꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯥꯡꯗ ꯌꯥꯝꯅ ꯄꯥꯝꯅꯔꯝꯃꯤ, ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯍꯩ ꯃꯁꯤꯟꯒꯤ ꯊꯤꯑꯣꯔꯤꯁꯤꯡ (ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯇ꯭ꯔꯦꯇꯤꯁ ꯏꯃꯤꯜꯗꯥ ꯄꯟꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯃꯇꯨꯡ ꯏꯟꯅꯥ) ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯩ-ꯃꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯌꯨꯝꯐꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯔꯨꯁꯣꯅꯥ ꯊꯥꯖꯈꯤ ꯃꯗꯨꯗꯤ ꯅꯍꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯕ ꯅꯨꯄꯥꯃꯆꯥꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯐꯣꯔꯃꯦꯜ ꯑꯣꯏꯕ ꯃꯍꯩꯁꯪꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯩ-ꯃꯁꯤꯡ ꯇꯝꯕꯗꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯞꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯒꯗꯕꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯨꯠꯇꯥ "ꯃꯍꯧꯁꯥꯗꯒꯤ ꯍꯛꯊꯦꯡꯅꯅꯥ ꯑꯦꯖꯨꯀꯦꯁꯟ" ꯑꯃꯥ ꯂꯧꯈꯠꯀꯗꯕꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯥꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯆꯥꯅꯨꯄꯥꯕꯨ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯊꯨꯅꯥ ꯌꯥꯎꯕ ꯂꯥꯏꯕ꯭ꯔꯦꯔꯤꯒꯤ ꯐꯛꯂꯥꯡꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗ ꯃꯁꯥꯕꯨ ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯛ ꯇꯝꯕꯤꯕꯒꯤ ꯑꯌꯥꯕ ꯄꯤꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯋꯥꯈꯜꯂꯣꯟ ꯑꯁꯤꯕꯨ ꯇꯁꯦꯡꯅꯥ ꯆꯠꯅꯍꯟꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯑꯦꯟꯂꯥꯏꯇꯦꯟꯃꯦꯟꯠꯀꯤ ꯃꯥꯁ꯭ꯇꯔꯄꯤꯁꯁꯤꯡ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯗꯤ ꯖꯔꯖ-ꯂꯨꯏꯁ ꯂꯦꯛꯂꯦꯔꯛ, ꯀꯝꯇꯦ ꯗꯦ ꯕꯐꯟꯒꯤ ꯍꯤꯁ꯭ꯇꯣꯔꯤ ꯅꯦꯆꯔꯜ, ꯖꯦꯅꯔꯦꯜ ꯑꯦꯠ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯀꯨꯂꯤꯌꯔ (꯱꯷꯴꯹ꯗꯥ ꯍꯧꯗꯣꯛꯈꯤꯕ) ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯗꯦꯅꯤꯁ ꯗꯤꯗꯦꯔꯣꯠ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯖꯤꯟ ꯂꯦ ꯔꯣꯟꯗ ꯗꯤ ꯑꯦꯂꯦꯝꯕꯔꯇꯀꯤ ꯑꯦꯟꯁꯥꯏꯛꯂꯣꯄꯤꯗꯤ (꯱꯷꯵꯱ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯱꯷꯷꯲ꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯛꯇꯥ ꯍꯥꯞꯆꯤꯜꯂꯛꯄꯥ ꯚꯣꯜꯌꯨꯝꯁꯤꯡ) ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯆꯤꯡꯕ ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯥ ꯑꯁꯨꯝꯅꯥ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯒꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯃꯍꯩꯁꯪꯒꯤ ꯃꯥꯁ꯭ꯇꯔꯁꯤꯡ ꯫  ꯑꯗꯨꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯃꯛ, ꯅꯍꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯕ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯥ ꯑꯊꯨꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯂꯦꯇꯤꯟ ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯛ ꯇꯝꯕꯤꯕꯥ ꯍꯧꯈꯤ, ꯃꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯄꯨ ꯂꯤꯑꯣꯟꯍꯥꯔꯗ ꯑꯣꯎꯂꯔ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯗꯥꯅꯤꯌꯦꯜ ꯕꯦꯔꯅꯧꯂꯤꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯀꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯈꯪꯕ ꯉꯝꯍꯟꯈꯤ ꯫

ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯌꯥꯑꯣꯜ ꯏꯍꯧ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯊꯛꯇꯥ, ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯈ꯭ꯋꯥꯏꯗꯒꯤ ꯅꯧꯕ ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯀꯁꯤꯡ ꯐꯪꯕꯒꯤ ꯈꯨꯗꯣꯡꯆꯥꯕ ꯁꯤꯖꯤꯟꯅꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯱꯲ ꯁꯨꯔꯛꯄꯗ ꯃꯁꯥꯃꯛꯄꯨ ꯈꯨꯃꯥꯡꯆꯥꯎꯁꯤꯟꯕ ꯃꯦꯊꯃꯦꯇꯤꯛꯁ ꯇꯝꯕꯤꯕ ꯍꯧꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯇꯨꯡ ꯇꯥꯔꯛꯄ ꯄꯨꯟꯁꯤꯗ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯥ ꯍꯥꯏꯈꯤ ꯃꯗꯨꯗꯤ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯇꯔꯥꯅꯤꯄꯥꯜ ꯁꯨꯔꯛꯄꯗ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯈꯪꯂꯝꯕ ꯑꯗꯨꯒꯨꯝꯅ ꯃꯦꯊꯃꯦꯇꯤꯛꯁ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯥꯏꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯃꯔꯝꯗ ꯈꯪꯂꯝꯃꯤ, ꯑꯗꯨꯕꯨ ꯄꯣꯂꯤꯃꯦꯊ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯄꯥꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗꯥ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ, ꯆꯠꯊꯣꯛ-ꯆꯠꯁꯤꯟ, ꯁꯩꯔꯦꯡ, ꯐꯤꯂꯣꯁꯣꯐꯤ, ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯍꯧꯁꯥꯒꯤ ꯁꯥꯏꯟꯁꯁꯤꯡ ꯌꯥꯎꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯃꯥ ꯊꯋꯥꯏ ꯌꯥꯎꯕ ꯀꯦꯊꯣꯂꯤꯛ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯝꯃꯤ, ꯃꯔꯝ ꯑꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯁꯨ ꯑꯦꯟꯂꯥꯏꯇꯦꯟꯃꯦꯟꯠ ꯁꯥꯏꯟꯁꯀꯥ ꯂꯣꯏꯅꯅꯥ ꯀꯦꯊꯣꯂꯤꯛ ꯊꯥꯖꯕꯗꯥ ꯍꯧꯗꯣꯛꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯅꯍꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯉꯩ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯍꯧꯈꯤꯕ ꯐ꯭ꯔꯥꯟꯁꯀꯤ ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯟ (꯱꯷꯸꯹–꯹꯹) ꯑꯁꯤꯁꯨ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯃꯔꯨ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ: ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯥꯕꯨ ꯑꯅꯧꯕ ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯅꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯃꯤꯌꯥꯝꯒꯤ ꯊꯕꯛꯇꯥ ꯀꯧꯈꯤ, [꯴] ꯂꯤꯌꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯥꯛꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯑꯄꯤꯛꯄ ꯁꯍꯔ ꯑꯃꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯟꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯖꯁ꯭ꯇꯤꯁ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯱꯷꯹꯲ ꯗꯥ ꯖꯦꯀꯣꯕꯤꯟ ꯐꯦꯛꯁꯟꯅꯥ ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯅꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯀꯟꯇ꯭ꯔꯣꯜ ꯂꯧꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ, ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯄꯥ ꯖꯤꯟ-ꯖꯦꯀꯁ ꯑꯦꯝꯄꯦꯔꯦꯅꯥ ꯑꯅꯧꯕ ꯔꯥꯖꯅꯤꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯕ ꯊꯧꯗꯣꯛꯁꯤꯡꯕꯨ ꯂꯥꯟꯊꯦꯡꯅꯈꯤ, ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯄꯨ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯑꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯖꯦꯀꯣꯕꯤꯟ ꯄꯔꯖꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯁꯔꯨꯛ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ, ꯱꯷꯹꯳ ꯒꯤ ꯅꯕꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯲꯴ ꯗꯥ ꯒꯤꯂꯣꯇꯤꯟ ꯇꯧꯈꯤ ꯫

ꯃꯇꯦꯡ ꯂꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

  1. "Ampère". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. (1970) Dictionary of Scientific Biography. United States of America: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 9780684101149. 
  3. Andre-Marie Ampere. IEEE Global History Network. IEEE.
  4. Biography of Andre Marie Ampere.