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ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝ ꯍꯨꯁꯦꯟ ꯑꯥꯕ꯭ꯗ ꯑꯜ-ꯃꯖꯤꯗ ꯑꯜ-ꯇꯤꯛꯔꯤꯇꯤ ( /h ʊ ˈ s eɪ n / ; [꯱] Arabic ꯔꯣꯃꯥꯅꯤꯖꯝ  ; [lower-alpha 1] ꯲꯸ ꯑꯦꯞꯔꯤꯜ ꯱꯹꯳꯷ [lower-alpha 2] – ꯳꯰ ꯗꯤꯁꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯲꯰꯰꯶) ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯔꯥꯖꯅꯤꯇꯤꯋꯥꯂꯥ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ, ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯱꯹꯷꯹ꯒꯤ ꯖꯨꯂꯥꯏ ꯱꯶ꯇꯒꯤ ꯲꯰꯰꯳ꯒꯤ ꯑꯦꯞꯔꯤꯜ ꯹ ꯐꯥꯎꯕ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯃꯉꯥꯁꯨꯕꯥ ꯔꯥꯁ꯭ꯠꯔꯄꯇꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯊꯕꯛ ꯇꯧꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯲] ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯅꯔꯤ ꯑꯔꯕ ꯁꯣꯁꯤꯑꯦꯂꯤꯁ꯭ꯠ ꯕꯥ’ꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯀꯣꯛ ꯊꯣꯡꯕꯥ ꯃꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯑꯃꯥ, ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ, ꯕꯥꯒꯗꯥꯗꯇꯥ ꯌꯨꯝꯐꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯕꯥ ꯕꯥ’ꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯔꯤꯖꯅꯦꯜ ꯑꯣꯔꯒꯅꯥꯏꯖꯦꯁꯟ, ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯕꯥ’ꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ —ꯃꯈꯣꯌꯅꯥ ꯑꯔꯕ ꯅꯦꯁ꯭ꯅꯦꯂꯤꯖꯝ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯑꯔꯕ ꯁꯣꯁꯤꯑꯦꯂꯤꯖꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯛꯁ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯕꯥ ꯕꯥ’ꯊꯤꯖꯝ ꯑꯁꯤꯕꯨ ꯌꯥꯅꯤꯡꯗꯕꯥ ꯐꯣꯡꯗꯣꯀꯈꯤ ꯫ —꯱꯹꯶꯸ꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯅꯐꯃꯗꯥ (ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯖꯨꯂꯥꯏ ꯱꯷ꯒꯤ ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯟ ꯍꯥꯌꯅꯥ ꯈꯉꯅꯈꯤ ) ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯇꯥ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ ꯑꯁꯤꯕꯨ ꯁꯛꯇꯤ ꯁꯤꯟꯅꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯑꯗꯨꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯃꯔꯨꯑꯣꯏꯕꯥ ꯊꯧꯗꯥꯡ ꯂꯧꯈꯤ ꯫

ꯑꯅꯥꯕꯥ ꯖꯦꯅꯔꯦꯜ ꯑꯍꯃꯗ ꯍꯥꯁꯥꯟ ꯑꯜ-ꯕꯀꯔꯒꯤ ꯃꯈꯥꯗꯥ ꯚꯥꯏꯁ ꯄ꯭ꯔꯁꯤꯗꯦꯟꯇ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ, ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞ ꯀꯌꯥꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛꯄꯨ ꯂꯧꯊꯣꯛꯄꯥ ꯉꯝꯒꯅꯤ ꯍꯥꯏꯅꯥ ꯂꯧꯅꯔꯛꯄꯥ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ, ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯁꯦꯛꯌꯨꯔꯤꯇꯤ ꯐꯣꯔꯁꯁꯤꯡ ꯁꯦꯃꯈꯤ ꯃꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯈꯨꯠꯊꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯑꯥꯔꯝ ꯐꯣꯔꯁꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯛꯇꯥ ꯂꯥꯟ ꯁꯣꯛꯅꯕꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯀꯟꯅꯥ ꯀꯟꯠꯔꯣꯜ ꯇꯧꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯱꯹꯷꯰ꯒꯤ ꯃꯌꯥꯏ ꯆꯜꯂꯀꯄꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯛ ꯄꯦꯠꯔꯣꯂꯤꯌꯝ ꯀꯝꯄꯦꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯅꯤꯡꯇꯝꯕꯥ ꯕꯦꯡꯛꯁꯤꯡꯕꯨ ꯅꯦꯁ꯭ꯅꯦꯂꯥꯏꯖ ꯇꯧꯈꯤ, ꯑꯔꯣꯏꯕꯗꯥ ꯏꯅꯐ꯭ꯂꯦꯁꯟ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯐꯠꯇꯕꯥ ꯂꯣꯅꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯃꯔꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯕꯦꯉ꯭ꯀꯤꯡ ꯁꯤꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯅꯁꯣꯂꯚꯦꯟꯇ ꯑꯣꯏꯍꯅꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯳] ꯱꯹꯷꯰ꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯁꯔꯀꯥꯔꯒꯤ ꯑꯦꯄꯥꯔꯇꯃꯦꯟꯇꯀꯤ ꯃꯇꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯑꯣꯊꯣꯔꯤꯇꯤ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯆꯦꯠꯁꯤꯂꯍꯅꯈꯤ ꯃꯔꯃꯗꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯂꯒꯤ ꯁꯦꯅꯐꯝꯅꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯁꯦꯟꯃꯤꯠꯂꯣꯟ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯊꯨꯅꯥ ꯆꯥꯎꯈꯠꯍꯅꯕꯗꯥ ꯃꯇꯦꯡ ꯄꯥꯡꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯂꯩꯕꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤꯗꯥ ꯁꯛꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯄꯣꯖꯤꯁꯅꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯌꯥꯝꯕꯅꯥ ꯁꯨꯟꯅꯤ ꯑꯔꯕꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯊꯜꯂꯝꯃꯤ, ꯃꯈꯣꯏꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯁꯔꯨꯛ ꯃꯉꯥ ꯈꯛꯇꯃꯛ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯝꯕꯥ ꯃꯥꯏꯅꯣꯔꯤꯇꯤ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯫ [꯴]

ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯍꯥꯟꯅꯅꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯀꯌꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯗꯦ ꯐꯦꯛꯇꯣ ꯍꯦꯗ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯕꯁꯨ ꯱꯹꯷꯹ꯗꯥ ꯐꯣꯔꯃꯦꯜ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯁꯛꯇꯤ ꯂꯧꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯃꯊꯪꯁꯤꯠꯅꯥ ꯁꯔꯀꯥꯔꯕꯨ ꯂꯧꯊꯣꯛꯅꯕꯥ ꯅꯠꯇ꯭ꯔꯒꯥ ꯅꯤꯡꯇꯝꯕꯥ ꯐꯪꯅꯕꯥ ꯍꯣꯠꯅꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯁꯤꯌꯥ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯀꯨꯔꯗꯤꯁꯀꯤ ꯈꯣꯡꯖꯪ ꯀꯌꯥꯕꯨ ꯊꯨꯒꯥꯏꯈꯤ [꯵] ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯏꯔꯥꯟ–ꯏꯔꯥꯛ ꯂꯥꯟ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯒꯜꯐ ꯋꯥꯔꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ ꯁꯛꯇꯤ ꯉꯥꯛꯇꯨꯅꯥ ꯊꯃꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯔꯤꯞꯔꯦꯁꯤꯕ ꯑꯣꯊꯣꯔꯤꯇꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯕꯥ ꯁꯔꯀꯥꯔ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯆꯂꯥꯏꯈꯤ, ꯃꯗꯨ ꯑꯦꯅꯥꯂꯥꯏꯇꯤꯛ ꯀꯌꯥꯅꯥ ꯇꯣꯇꯦꯂꯤꯇꯦꯔꯤꯌꯟ ꯍꯥꯌꯅꯥ ꯐꯣꯡꯗꯣꯀꯈꯤ, [lower-alpha 3] ꯂꯦꯕꯦꯜ ꯑꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯑꯦꯞꯂꯤꯀꯦꯕꯤꯂꯤꯇꯤ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯀꯟꯇꯦꯁ꯭ꯠ ꯇꯧꯔꯕꯁꯨ꯫ [꯶] ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯒꯤ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯕꯒꯤ ꯍꯛꯁꯤꯡ ꯊꯨꯒꯥꯏꯕꯥ ꯀꯌꯥꯅꯥ ꯃꯁꯛ ꯇꯥꯥꯥꯥꯛꯈꯤ, ꯃꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯆꯥꯎꯔꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯲꯵꯰,꯰꯰꯰ ꯔꯣꯝ ꯁꯤꯈꯤꯕꯥ [꯷] ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯌꯨꯝꯂꯣꯟꯅꯔꯤꯕ ꯏꯔꯥꯟ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯀꯨꯋꯦꯠꯇꯥ ꯏꯁꯤꯡ ꯂꯥꯟꯃꯤꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯟꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯂꯥꯟꯗꯥꯕꯥ ꯌꯥꯎꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯸]

꯲꯰꯰꯳ꯗꯥ ꯑꯃꯦꯔꯤꯀꯥꯅꯥ ꯂꯨꯆꯤꯡꯕꯥ ꯀꯣꯑꯣꯄꯔꯦꯁꯟ ꯑꯃꯅꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯕꯨ ꯂꯧꯊꯣꯛꯅꯕꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯇꯥ ꯆꯪꯁꯤꯟꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯌꯨ ꯑꯦꯁꯀꯤ ꯔꯥꯁ꯭ꯠꯔꯄꯇꯤ ꯖꯔꯖ ꯗꯕ꯭ꯂꯤꯎ ꯕꯨꯁ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯕ꯭ꯔꯤꯇꯤꯁꯀꯤ ꯄ꯭ꯔꯙꯥꯟ ꯃꯟꯠꯔꯤ ꯇꯣꯅꯤ ꯕ꯭ꯂꯦꯌꯥꯔꯅꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯤꯌꯥꯝꯕꯨ ꯃꯥꯡꯍꯟ ꯇꯥꯀꯍꯅꯕꯥ ꯌꯥꯕꯥ ꯈꯨꯠꯂꯥꯌꯁꯤꯡ ꯂꯩ ꯍꯥꯏꯅꯥ ꯑꯔꯥꯟꯕꯥ ꯃꯑꯣꯡꯗꯥ ꯊꯥꯖꯕꯥ ꯄꯤꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯑꯜ ꯀꯥꯏꯗꯥꯒꯥ ꯃꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯅꯔꯤ ꯫ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯒꯤ ꯕꯥ’ꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ ꯃꯨꯠꯊꯠꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯂꯩꯕꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯑꯍꯥꯅꯕꯥ ꯗꯦꯃꯣꯛꯔꯦꯇꯤꯛ ꯃꯤꯈꯜ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯀꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯲꯰꯰꯳ꯒꯤ ꯗꯤꯁꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯱꯳ꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯀꯄꯨ ꯐꯥꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝ ꯍꯨꯁꯦꯅꯒꯤ ꯋꯥꯌꯦꯜ ꯆꯠꯊꯕꯒꯤ ꯊꯕꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯏꯟꯇꯔꯤꯝ ꯁꯔꯀꯥꯔꯒꯤ ꯃꯈꯥꯗꯥ ꯊꯣꯀꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯲꯰꯰꯶ꯀꯤ ꯅꯕꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯵ꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯕꯨ ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯀꯣꯔꯠ ꯑꯃꯅꯥ ꯱꯹꯸꯲ꯗꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯁꯤꯌꯥ ꯱꯴꯸ ꯁꯤꯈꯤꯕꯒꯥ ꯃꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯅꯕꯥ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯥꯌꯣꯛꯇꯥ ꯀ꯭ꯔꯥꯏꯃꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯋꯥꯌꯦꯜ ꯄꯤꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯤꯕꯒꯤ ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯛ ꯄꯤꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯄꯨ ꯲꯰꯰꯶ꯀꯤ ꯗꯤꯁꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯳꯰ꯗꯥ ꯐꯥꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯹]

ꯉꯜꯂꯤꯉꯩꯒꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯁꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯅꯍꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤꯉꯩ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯈꯨꯉ꯭ꯒꯪꯗꯥ, ꯇꯤꯛꯔꯤꯠꯀꯤ ꯃꯅꯥꯛꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯂꯧꯎ-ꯁꯤꯡꯎꯒꯤ ꯊꯕꯛꯇꯥ, ꯱꯹꯵꯶

ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯨꯞ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯄꯥꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛ ꯄꯣꯀꯄꯥ ꯃꯃꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯀꯦꯟꯁꯔꯅꯥ ꯅꯥꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯈꯤꯗ꯭ꯔꯦ ꯫ ꯍꯥꯏꯔꯤꯕꯥ ꯁꯤꯕꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯃꯥ ꯁꯨꯚꯥ ꯇꯨꯂꯐꯥꯍ ꯑꯜ-ꯃꯨꯁꯜꯂꯥꯠꯄꯨ ꯑꯁꯨꯛ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯋꯥꯅꯥ ꯊꯣꯀꯍꯅꯈꯤ ꯃꯗꯨꯗꯤ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯤꯔꯣꯅꯕꯥ ꯑꯗꯨ ꯂꯧꯊꯣꯛꯅꯕꯥ ꯍꯣꯠꯅꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯁꯥꯅꯥ ꯃꯁꯥꯕꯨ ꯁꯤꯖꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯆꯥꯅꯨꯄꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯱꯹꯳꯷ ꯒꯤ ꯑꯦꯞꯔꯤꯜ ꯲꯸ ꯗꯥ ꯇꯤꯛꯔꯤꯠꯀꯤ ꯃꯅꯥꯛꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯑꯄꯤꯛꯄꯥ ꯈꯨꯉ꯭ꯒꯪ ꯑꯃꯗꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯑꯋꯥꯖꯥꯗꯥ ꯄꯣꯀꯄꯥ ꯃꯇꯝꯗꯥ ꯁꯨꯚꯥꯅꯥ “ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯥ ꯃꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯅꯕꯥ ꯑꯃꯠꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯔꯣꯏ” ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯕꯨ ꯃꯥꯃꯥ ꯑꯃꯅꯥ ꯂꯧꯁꯤꯟꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯱꯰]

ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯃꯥꯅꯥ ꯑꯃꯨꯛ ꯍꯟꯅꯥ ꯂꯨꯍꯣꯡꯈꯤ, ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯂꯨꯍꯣꯡꯕꯥ ꯑꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯈꯨꯠꯊꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯃꯔꯨꯞ ꯑꯍꯨꯝ ꯐꯪꯈꯤ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯂꯣꯌꯅꯕꯤ ꯏꯕ꯭ꯔꯥꯍꯤꯝ ꯑꯜ-ꯍꯥꯁꯥꯟꯅꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯕꯨ ꯍꯜꯂꯛꯂꯕꯥ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯀꯟꯅꯥ ꯂꯥꯌꯦꯡꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯤ.ꯑꯥꯏ.ꯑꯦ.ꯅꯥ ꯁꯦꯃꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯁꯥꯏꯀꯣꯂꯣꯖꯤꯀꯦꯜ ꯄ꯭ꯔꯣꯐꯥꯏꯜ ꯑꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡ ꯏꯟꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯀꯄꯨ ꯆꯥꯡ ꯅꯥꯏꯅꯥ ꯂꯥꯟꯗꯥꯈꯤ, ꯀꯔꯤꯒꯨꯝꯕꯥ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯀꯄꯨ ꯋꯥꯈꯜ ꯇꯥꯍꯟꯅꯕꯥ ꯫ [꯱꯱] [꯱꯲] ꯆꯥꯎꯔꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯱꯰ ꯁꯨꯔꯛꯄꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯏꯃꯨꯡ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯄꯊꯣꯀꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯃꯥ ꯃꯄꯥ ꯈꯥꯏꯔꯥꯜꯂꯥꯍ ꯇꯥꯂꯐꯥꯍꯒꯥ ꯂꯣꯏꯅꯅꯥ ꯕꯥꯒꯗꯥꯗꯇꯥ ꯍꯜꯂꯀꯈꯤ, ꯃꯍꯥꯛ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯥꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯱꯳] ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝꯒꯤ ꯇꯨꯡꯒꯤ ꯅꯨꯄꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯥ ꯇꯥꯂꯐꯥꯍ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯊꯋꯥꯏ ꯌꯥꯎꯕꯥ ꯁꯨꯟꯅꯤ ꯃꯨꯁ꯭ꯂꯤꯝ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯱꯹꯴꯱ꯗꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯅꯦꯁ꯭ꯅꯦꯂꯤꯁ꯭ꯇꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯌꯨꯅꯥꯏꯇꯦꯗ ꯀꯤꯡꯗꯃꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯛꯇꯥ ꯊꯣꯀꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯑꯦꯉ꯭ꯒꯂꯣ-ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯂꯥꯅꯒꯤ ꯚꯦꯇꯔꯥꯟ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯝꯃꯤ, ꯃꯗꯨ ꯂꯃꯗꯝ ꯑꯁꯤꯗꯥ ꯑꯆꯧꯕꯥ ꯀꯣꯂꯣꯅꯤꯑꯦꯜ ꯄꯥꯋꯔ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯈꯤ ꯫ [꯱꯴] ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯇꯥꯂꯐꯥꯍꯅꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯒꯤ ꯁꯛꯇꯤ ꯂꯩꯔꯕꯥ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ ꯕꯥꯒꯗꯥꯗꯀꯤ ꯃꯦꯌꯔ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ, ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯤꯡꯆꯠ ꯊꯤꯕꯥ ꯁꯦꯟꯖꯥ-ꯊꯨꯃꯖꯥꯅꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯕꯨ ꯑꯣꯐꯤꯁꯇꯒꯤ ꯂꯧꯊꯣꯛꯅꯕꯥ ꯋꯥꯁꯀꯈꯤꯕꯥ ꯐꯥꯎꯕ ꯫ [꯱꯳]

ꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯁꯤꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯄꯣꯛ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯇꯤꯛꯔꯤꯠꯇꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯛꯄꯥ ꯃꯔꯤ-ꯃꯇꯥꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯈ꯭ꯋꯥꯏꯗꯒꯤ ꯅꯛꯅꯕꯥ ꯑꯦꯗꯚꯥꯏꯖꯔ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯄꯣꯔꯇꯔ ꯈꯔ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯥꯃꯥꯒꯤ ꯂꯃꯖꯤꯡ ꯃꯈꯥꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯕꯥꯒꯗꯥꯗꯇꯥ ꯂꯩꯕꯥ ꯅꯦꯁ꯭ꯅꯦꯂꯤꯁ꯭ꯠ ꯍꯥꯏ ꯁ꯭ꯀꯨꯜ ꯑꯃꯗꯥ ꯇꯃꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯁꯦꯀꯦꯟꯗꯔꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯀꯨꯂꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯀꯤ ꯂꯣ ꯁ꯭ꯀꯨꯜ ꯑꯃꯗꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯑꯍꯨꯝ ꯇꯃꯈꯤ, ꯱꯹꯵꯷ꯇꯥ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯲꯰ ꯁꯨꯔꯀꯄꯗꯥ ꯔꯤꯚꯣꯂꯨꯁꯅꯔꯤ ꯄꯥꯟ-ꯑꯔꯕ ꯕꯥꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯗꯥ ꯌꯥꯑꯣꯈꯤ, ꯃꯗꯨꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯃꯥ ꯃꯄꯥꯅꯥ ꯁꯄꯣꯔꯇꯔ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯑꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯗꯥ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯅꯥ ꯃꯁꯥꯕꯨ ꯁꯦꯀꯦꯟꯗꯔꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯀꯨꯂꯒꯤ ꯑꯣꯖꯥ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯁꯧꯒꯠꯈꯤ ꯍꯥꯏꯅꯥ ꯂꯧꯅꯩ꯫ [꯱꯵] ꯕꯥꯑꯥꯊꯤꯁ꯭ꯠ ꯑꯥꯏꯗꯤꯑꯣꯂꯣꯖꯤ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯤꯔꯤꯌꯥꯗꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯀꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯑꯗꯨꯗꯥ ꯕꯥꯑꯥꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯅꯥ ꯁꯤꯔꯤꯌꯥꯗꯥ ꯑꯆꯧꯕꯥ ꯐꯣꯂꯣꯋꯤꯡ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯂꯩꯔꯝꯃꯤ, ꯑꯗꯨꯕꯨ ꯱꯹꯵꯵ꯗꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯀꯇꯥ ꯕꯥꯑꯥꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯍꯨꯠ ꯳꯰꯰ꯗꯒꯤ ꯇꯥꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯈꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯃꯒꯤ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ ꯑꯁꯤꯗꯥ ꯌꯥꯎꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯨꯑꯣꯏꯕꯥ ꯃꯔꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯈꯤ ꯍꯥꯌꯅꯥ ꯊꯥꯖꯅꯩ ꯫ ꯍꯦꯟꯅꯥ ꯂꯤꯡꯈꯠꯂꯛꯂꯤꯕꯥ ꯏꯔꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯅꯦꯁ꯭ꯅꯦꯂꯤꯁ꯭ꯠ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯨꯠꯇꯥ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯏꯃꯨꯡ ꯃꯅꯨꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯤ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯍꯥꯛꯀꯤ ꯃꯥꯃꯥꯒꯤ ꯈꯨꯠꯊꯥꯡꯗꯥ ꯑꯍꯃꯗ ꯍꯥꯁꯥꯟ ꯑꯜ-ꯕꯀꯔ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯑꯇꯣꯞꯄꯥ ꯃꯀꯣꯛ ꯊꯣꯡꯕꯥ ꯕꯥꯑꯊꯤꯁꯤꯡꯒꯥ ꯂꯩꯅꯕꯅꯤ ꯫ [꯱꯳]

ꯁꯥꯗ꯭ꯗꯥꯝ ꯍꯨꯁꯦꯟ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯕꯥ’ꯊ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯩꯔꯣꯏ ꯁꯦꯜ, ꯀꯥꯌꯔꯣ, ꯱꯹꯵꯹–꯱꯹꯶꯳ꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯃꯗꯥ ꯫

ꯃꯇꯦꯡ ꯂꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

  1. "Hussein". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Online NewsHour Update: Coalition Says Iraqi Regime Has Lost Control of Baghdad — 9 April 2003. PBS (9 April 2003).
  3. "Banking in Iraq – A tricky operation"꯫ 24 June 2004 ꯫ 
  4. Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography. 
  5. U.S. Relations With Anti-Saddam Groups. Congressional Research Service.
  6. Sassoon, Joseph (February 2017). "Aaron M. Faust, The Ba'thification of Iraq: Saddam Hussein's Totalitarianism [Book Review]". International Journal of Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press. 49 (1): 205–206. doi:10.1017/S0020743816001392. First, Faust totally ignores the economy in his analysis. This oversight is remarkable given his attempt to trace how the regime became totalitarian, which, by definition, encompasses all facets of life. ... Second, the comparison with Stalin or Hitler is weak when one takes into consideration how many Iraqis were allowed to leave the country. Although citizens needed to undergo a convoluted and bureaucratic procedure to obtain the necessary papers to leave the country, the fact remains that more than one million Iraqis migrated from Iraq from the end of the Iran–Iraq War in 1988 until the US-led invasion in 2003. Third, religion under Stalin did not function in the same manner as it did in Iraq, and while Faust details how the Shia were not allowed to engage in some of their ceremonies, the average Iraqi was allowed to pray at home and in a mosque. ... it is correct that the security services kept a watch on religious establishments and mosques, but the Iraqi approach is somewhat different from that pursued by Stalin's totalitarianism.
  7. War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention. Human Rights Watch.
  8. How Many People Has Hussein Killed?.
  9. "Saddam Hussein executed in Iraq"꯫ BBC News꯫ 30 December 2006 ꯫ 
  10. "Was a Tyrant Prefigured by Baby Saddam?" ꯫ 
  11. "Saddam's Roots an Abusive Childhood" ꯫ 
  12. Saddam is Iraq: Iraq is Saddam. Maxwell Airforce Base.
  13. ꯱꯳.꯰ ꯱꯳.꯱ ꯱꯳.꯲ Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography. Grove Press.  Cite ꯑꯔꯥꯟꯕ: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Karsh 13–15" defined multiple times with different content
  14. Eric Davis, Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq, University of California Press, 2005.
  15. The Old Social Classes & The Revolutionary Movement in Iraq.