ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ

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ꯀꯪꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ
ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ
ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯆꯥ
ꯂꯣꯛꯇꯥꯛ ꯄꯥꯠ, ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜꯗꯒꯤ ꯀꯤꯂꯣꯃꯤꯇꯔ ꯳꯰ ꯂꯥꯞꯄꯥ
ꯂꯣꯛꯇꯥꯛ ꯄꯥꯠ, ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜꯗꯒꯤ ꯀꯤꯂꯣꯃꯤꯇꯔ ꯳꯰ ꯂꯥꯞꯄꯥ
ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯆꯥ, ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ
ꯁꯦꯝꯈꯤꯕ ꯃꯇꯝ꯲꯱ ꯋꯥꯛꯆꯤꯡ ꯳꯲꯷꯰ ꯃꯂꯤꯌꯥꯐꯝ ꯄꯥꯜꯆꯥ ꯀꯨꯝꯁꯤꯡ
ꯀꯣꯅꯨꯡꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ
ꯄꯅꯥ꯱꯶
Government
 • ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ ꯂꯝꯖꯤꯡ ꯄꯨꯔꯦꯜꯅꯥꯖꯃꯥ ꯍꯦꯞꯇꯨꯜꯂꯥ[꯱]
 • ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ ꯁꯦꯂꯨꯡꯕ ꯃꯀꯣꯛꯅꯣꯡꯊꯣꯝꯕꯝ ꯕꯤꯔꯦꯟ ꯁꯤꯡꯍ (ꯚꯔꯥꯠꯇꯤꯌꯥ ꯖꯅꯥꯇꯥ ꯄꯥꯔꯇꯤ)[꯲]
 • ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯂꯦꯖꯤꯁ꯭ꯂꯦꯇꯤꯚ ꯃꯤꯐꯝꯌꯨꯅꯤꯀꯥꯔꯃꯦꯜ (ꯐꯝ ꯶꯰)
 • ꯂꯣꯛ ꯁꯚꯥꯔꯥꯖ꯭ꯌ ꯁꯚꯥ ꯱
ꯂꯣꯛ ꯁꯚꯥ ꯲
 • ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ ꯋꯥꯌꯦꯟꯁꯪꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ ꯋꯥꯌꯦꯟꯁꯪ
Area
 • Total꯲꯲꯳꯲꯷ km (꯸,꯶꯲꯱ sq mi)
ꯄꯥꯛ-ꯆꯥꯎꯕ ꯃꯊꯪꯪ ꯃꯅꯥꯎ꯲꯴ꯁꯨꯕ
Population (꯲꯰꯱꯱[꯳])
 • Total꯲,꯸꯵꯵,꯷꯹꯴
 • Rank꯲꯴ꯁꯨꯕ
ꯑꯥꯏꯑꯦꯁꯑꯣ ꯳꯱꯶꯶ ꯀꯣꯗIN-MN
ꯃꯌꯦꯛ ꯆꯠꯄ꯷꯹.꯸꯵℅ (꯱꯶ꯁꯨꯕ)
ꯂꯣꯢꯁꯪꯒꯤ ꯂꯣꯟꯃꯤꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ [꯴]
ꯋꯦꯕꯁꯥꯏꯠwww.manipur.gov.in
State symbols of ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ
ꯏꯝꯕꯂꯦꯝꯀꯪꯂꯥꯁꯥ
ꯂꯣꯟꯃꯤꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ
ꯏꯁꯩꯁꯅꯥ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ
ꯖꯒꯣꯏꯂꯥꯏꯍꯔꯥꯎꯕ ꯖꯒꯣꯏ
ꯁꯥꯁꯉꯥꯏ (ꯔꯨꯁꯔꯚꯁ ꯑꯦꯜꯗꯤ ꯑꯦꯜꯗꯤ)
ꯎꯆꯦꯛꯅꯣꯉꯤꯟ (ꯁꯤꯔꯃꯥꯇꯤꯀꯁ ꯍ꯭ꯌꯨꯃꯤꯌꯦꯏ)
ꯂꯩꯁꯤꯔꯨꯏ ꯂꯤꯂꯤ (ꯂꯤꯂꯤꯌꯝ ꯃꯦꯛꯂꯤꯅꯤꯌꯦꯏ)
ꯎꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ (ꯐꯣꯢꯕꯦ ꯍꯥꯢꯅꯦꯁꯤꯌꯥꯅꯥ)
ꯇꯨꯔꯦꯜꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ ꯇꯨꯔꯦꯜ
ꯁꯥꯟꯅ-ꯈꯣꯠꯅꯕꯁꯥꯒꯣꯜ ꯀꯥꯡꯖꯩ

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯅꯠꯇꯔꯒ ꯀꯪꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ (/ˈmʌnɪpʊər/ (About this sound listen)) ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯑꯋꯥꯡ ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛ ꯂꯝꯗꯝꯗ ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜꯀꯣꯅꯨꯡ ꯑꯣꯏꯅ ꯂꯩꯕ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯆꯥ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯫[꯵] ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯅꯒꯥꯂꯦꯟꯅ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯗ, ꯃꯤꯖꯣꯔꯥꯝꯅ ꯈꯥꯗ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯑꯁꯥꯝꯅ ꯅꯣꯡꯆꯨꯞꯇ ꯑꯗꯨꯒ ꯃꯌꯥꯟꯃꯥꯔ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛꯅ ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛꯇ ꯀꯣꯏꯁꯤꯟꯗꯨꯅ ꯂꯩꯕ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯆꯥ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ꯫ ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯄꯥꯛ-ꯆꯥꯎꯕꯅ (ꯁꯥꯉꯥꯢꯡ ꯂꯝꯂꯦꯟ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯆꯤꯟ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ)ꯅ ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛꯇ ꯁꯟꯗꯣꯛꯢ꯫ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯃꯆꯥ ꯑꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯄꯥꯛ-ꯆꯥꯎꯕꯁꯤ ꯀꯤ.ꯃꯤ. ꯲꯲꯳꯲꯷ ꯑꯣꯢ ꯑꯄꯗꯤ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡꯅ ꯃꯤꯂꯤꯌꯟ ꯳ꯃꯨꯛ ꯑꯣꯢ꯫ ꯂꯝꯗꯝ ꯑꯁꯤꯗ ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯐꯨꯂꯨꯞ ꯌꯥꯎꯔꯒ, ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯄꯥꯡꯒꯜ, ꯅꯥꯒꯥ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯀꯨꯀꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯅ ꯈꯨꯟꯗꯥꯃꯤꯟꯅꯩ꯫ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯦꯁꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯁꯦꯟꯃꯤꯠꯂꯣꯟ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯆꯠꯅꯂꯣꯟꯒꯤ ꯑꯣꯟꯊꯣꯛ ꯑꯣꯟꯁꯤꯟꯒꯤ ꯐꯥꯎꯅ ꯂꯝꯗꯝ ꯑꯣꯢꯗꯨꯅ ꯆꯍꯤ ꯲꯵꯰꯰ ꯍꯦꯟꯅ ꯂꯥꯛꯂꯤ꯫[꯶] ꯂꯝꯗꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯚꯥꯔꯠꯀꯤ ꯂꯝꯂꯦꯟ, ꯈꯥꯒꯤ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ, ꯁꯥꯢꯕꯦꯔꯤꯌꯥ, ꯃꯥꯢꯀ꯭ꯔꯣꯅꯦꯁꯤꯌꯥ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯄꯣꯂꯤꯅꯦꯁꯤꯌꯥꯒ ꯁꯥꯡꯂꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗꯒꯤ ꯃꯤ ꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞ, ꯆꯠꯅꯂꯣꯟ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ ꯀꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯐꯥꯎꯗꯣꯛ ꯐꯥꯎꯖꯤꯟꯐꯝ ꯑꯣꯢꯗꯨꯅ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯁꯝꯅꯗꯨꯅ ꯂꯥꯛꯢ꯫[꯷][꯸]

ꯕ꯭ꯔꯤꯇꯤꯁꯅ ꯄꯥꯟꯂꯝꯕ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ, ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯄꯥꯟꯍꯟꯗꯨꯅ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯉꯥꯛꯄ ꯌꯥꯎꯍꯟꯂꯝꯃꯤ ꯫[꯹] ꯏꯪ ꯀꯨꯝꯖꯥ ꯱꯹꯱꯷ ꯗꯒꯤ ꯱꯹꯳꯹ ꯐꯥꯎꯕꯗ, ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯈꯔꯅ ꯃꯤꯌꯥꯝꯅ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛꯆꯕ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯑꯃ ꯑꯣꯏꯅ ꯇꯛꯁꯤꯟꯂꯝꯏ ꯫ ꯏꯪ ꯀꯨꯝꯖꯥ ꯱꯹꯳꯰ ꯂꯣꯏꯔꯛ ꯑꯗꯨꯋꯥꯏꯗ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯉꯥꯛꯄ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯁꯤꯡꯅ ꯑꯋꯥꯒ ꯄꯨꯟꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯍꯨꯠꯇ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒ ꯄꯨꯟꯒꯦ ꯍꯥꯏꯅ ꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯁꯥꯅꯈꯤ ꯫

ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯄꯥꯡꯒꯜ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞ ꯑꯅꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯁꯤꯟꯂꯒ [꯱꯰] ꯑꯄꯨꯟꯕ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡꯗ ꯆꯥꯥꯗ ꯵꯳ ꯑꯣꯏ, ꯅꯥꯒꯥ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞꯅ ꯆꯥꯗ ꯲꯴ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯀꯨꯀꯤ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞꯅ ꯆꯥꯗ ꯱꯶ ꯑꯣꯏ ꯫[꯱꯱]. ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯨꯡ ꯑꯣꯢꯕꯟꯂꯣꯟꯗꯤ ꯃꯤꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯂꯣꯟ) ꯅ ꯑꯣꯢ ꯫ ꯍꯥꯎ ꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞꯁꯤꯡꯅ ꯂꯝꯗꯝ ꯑꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯲꯰꯱꯱ ꯆꯍꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯀꯣꯛ ꯊꯤꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯏꯟꯅ ꯆꯥꯗ ꯴꯱ ꯑꯣꯢ꯫[꯱꯲] ꯍꯥꯎ ꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞꯁꯤꯡꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯂꯝ ꯂꯝꯒꯤ ꯈꯦꯠꯅꯕ ꯂꯣꯟꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯇꯣꯉꯥꯟ ꯇꯣꯉꯥꯟꯕ ꯆꯠꯅꯕꯤ ꯂꯩ꯫ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯈꯜ ꯃꯈꯥ ꯀꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡ ꯂꯤꯆꯠ ꯆꯠꯂꯤ ꯫[꯱꯳] ꯲꯰꯱꯱ ꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯀꯣꯛ ꯊꯤꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯏꯟꯅ ꯍꯤꯟꯗꯨ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡꯅ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯃꯄꯨꯡ ꯑꯣꯢꯕ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ ꯑꯣꯢꯔꯤ꯫ ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯏꯟꯅ ꯈ꯭ꯔꯤꯁꯇ꯭ꯌꯥꯟ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ, ꯏꯁ꯭ꯂꯥꯝ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ, ꯁꯅꯥꯃꯍꯤ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ, ꯖꯨꯗꯥꯏꯁꯝ ꯂꯥꯢꯅꯤꯡ ꯅꯆꯤꯡꯕ ꯂꯩꯔꯤ꯫[꯱꯳][꯱꯴]

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯁꯦꯟꯃꯤꯠꯂꯣꯟ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯂꯧ-ꯎꯕ, ꯎꯍꯩ ꯄꯥꯝꯕꯤ ꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯊꯥꯕꯅꯤ, ꯂꯣꯏꯅꯅ ꯏꯁꯤꯡꯗꯒꯤ ꯃꯩ ꯁꯨꯡꯕ ꯁꯨ ꯌꯥꯎꯏ꯫ ꯃꯁꯤ ꯃꯐꯝ ꯑꯇꯩꯒ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯗꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯇꯩꯒ ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ ꯃꯥꯂꯦꯝ ꯃꯥꯂꯪ ꯍꯤꯊꯥꯡꯐꯝ ꯁꯤꯖꯤꯟꯅꯗꯨꯅ ꯆꯠꯂꯤ, ꯑꯋꯥꯡ ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯲ꯁꯨꯕ ꯆꯥꯎꯕ ꯃꯥꯂꯪ ꯍꯤꯊꯥꯡꯐꯝꯅꯤ ꯫[꯱꯵] ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯥꯅ ꯈꯣꯠꯅꯕꯒꯤ ꯂꯝꯗꯁꯨ ꯊꯣꯢꯗꯣꯛ ꯍꯦꯟꯗꯣꯛꯅ ꯃꯃꯤꯡ ꯂꯩ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯃꯁꯥꯟꯅ ꯀꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝꯁꯨ ꯑꯣꯏ꯫ ꯃꯐꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯖꯒꯣꯢ ꯔꯥꯁꯀꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝꯁꯨ ꯑꯣꯏ꯫[꯱꯶] ꯃꯐꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯥꯒꯣꯜ ꯀꯥꯡꯖꯩ ꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ ꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯏꯎꯔꯣꯞ ꯃꯆꯥꯁꯤꯡꯗ ꯃꯁꯥꯅ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯛꯇꯥꯛꯈꯤꯕꯅꯤ ꯍꯥꯢꯅꯁꯨ ꯂꯧꯅꯔꯤ꯫[꯱꯷]

ꯑꯇꯣꯞꯄ ꯃꯃꯤꯡꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯑꯔꯤꯕꯥ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯛꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯨꯡ ꯏꯟꯅ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯀꯪꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ, ꯁꯅꯥꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯍꯥꯏꯅꯁꯨ ꯀꯧꯔꯝꯃꯤ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯒꯤ ꯈꯨꯗꯝ ꯐꯪꯉꯤ ꯫[꯱꯸]

ꯀꯪꯂꯩ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯒꯤ ꯋꯥꯍꯟꯊꯣꯛꯇꯤ "ꯀꯩꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛꯀꯤ/ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ" ꯑꯣꯢꯕ, ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯋꯥꯍꯩ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯀꯤ ꯃꯇꯥꯡꯗ ꯅꯩꯅꯔꯄ ꯃꯇꯝꯗ ꯁꯤꯖꯤꯟꯅꯩ ꯫

ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯀꯪꯂꯥꯁꯥ, ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯀꯤ ꯁꯛꯇꯥꯛ꯫

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯄꯨꯌꯥꯁꯤꯡꯗ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯤꯖꯅ ꯏꯁꯤꯟꯂꯤ (ꯑꯩꯈꯣꯏꯒꯤ ꯏꯄꯥ ꯏꯄꯨꯒꯤ ꯋꯥꯔꯤꯁꯤꯡ) ꯃꯤꯡ ꯑꯣꯏꯅ ꯄꯟꯂꯕꯗ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯀꯥꯡꯕꯂꯣꯟ, ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯏꯕꯤ ꯈꯣꯡꯒꯨꯜ, ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯆꯤꯡꯕ ꯑꯔꯤꯕ ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛꯇꯥ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯏꯔꯝꯂꯤꯕꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯥꯏꯆꯧ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯠꯌꯦꯡ ꯃꯈꯥꯗ ꯏꯔꯝꯕꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯆꯤꯡꯃꯤ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞꯁꯨ ꯃꯁꯥ ꯃꯁꯥꯒꯤ ꯑꯣꯏꯕ ꯐꯨꯡꯒꯥ-ꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯍꯧꯖꯤꯛꯁꯨ ꯂꯤꯅꯔꯤꯕ ꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯀꯌꯥꯃꯔꯨꯝ ꯂꯩꯔꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯁꯤ ꯃꯤꯡꯂꯦꯟ ꯀꯌꯥꯃꯔꯨꯝ ꯂꯩ꯫ ꯁꯤꯡꯊꯥꯕ ꯌꯥꯕ ꯈꯔꯗꯤ ꯀꯪꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ, ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯩꯄꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ ꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯀꯌꯥꯗ ꯃꯤꯡꯂꯦꯟ ꯀꯌꯥꯃꯔꯨꯝ ꯀꯧꯗꯨꯅ ꯈꯪꯅꯔꯝꯃꯤ, ꯄꯟꯕ ꯌꯥꯕꯗꯤ ꯇꯤꯜꯂꯤ ꯀꯣꯛꯇꯣꯡ, ꯄꯣꯢꯔꯩꯂꯝ, ꯁꯅꯥꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ, ꯃꯤꯇꯩꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛ, ꯃꯩꯇ꯭ꯔꯕꯥꯛ, ꯅꯠꯇ꯭ꯔꯒ ꯉꯁꯤ ꯉꯁꯤ ꯀꯧꯅꯔꯤꯕ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤꯅꯤ ꯫ Its capital was Kangla, Yumphal or Imphal (present day).  Its people were known by various names, such as Mi-tei, Poirei-Mitei, Meetei, Maitei or Meitei.  The Puwaris, Ninghthou Kangbalon, Ningthourol Lambuba, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, recorded the events  of each King who ruled Manipur in a span of more than 3500 years until 1955 AD (a total of more than 108 kings). Ningthou Kangba (15th century BC) is regarded as the first and foremost king of Manipur.  There were times when the country was in turmoil without rulers and long historical gaps in between 1129 BC - 44 BC. In 1891 AD, after the defeat of the Meiteis by the British in the Anglo-Manipuri war of Khongjom, the sovereignty of Manipur which it had maintained for more than three millenniums, was lost. In 1926, it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1947, January 4. It regained its freedom on 14th August 1947 AD. On 15 October 1949, Manipur was unified with India.[꯱꯹]

ꯃꯌꯥꯏ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ ꯂꯤꯔꯕ ꯃꯇꯝ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

By the medieval period, marriage alliances between royal families of the Manipur kingdom, Ahom (Assam) and Burma had become common.[꯱꯹] Medieval era Manipur manuscripts discovered in the 20th century, particularly the Puya, provide evidence that Hindus from the Indian subcontinent were married to Manipur royalty at least by the 14th century. In centuries thereafter, royal spouses came also from what is now modern ꯑꯁꯥꯝ, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh along with ancient Dravidian kingdoms, and other regions.[꯲꯰] Another manuscript suggests that Muslims arrived in Manipur in the 17th century, from what is now Bangladesh, during the reign of Meidingu Khagemba.[꯲꯰] The socio-political turmoil and wars, particularly the persistent and devastating Manipur-Burma wars, affected the cultural and religious demography of Manipur.[꯲꯱]

ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯅꯥ ꯄꯥꯟꯕ ꯃꯇꯝ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯀꯨꯝꯖꯥ ꯱꯸꯲꯴ ꯗ, the ruler of Manipur entered into a subsidiary alliance with the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent, which became responsible for Manipur's external defence. The British recognised that the state remained internally self-governing, as a princely state.[꯲꯲] During World War II, Manipur was the scene of many fierce battles between Japanese invaders and British Indian forces. The Japanese were beaten back before they could enter Imphal, which was one of the turning points of the overall war in South Asia.

ꯑꯅꯧꯕ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯄꯨꯋꯥꯔꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯂꯥꯟꯖꯥꯎ ꯃꯇꯨꯡꯗ, ꯕ꯭ꯔꯤꯇꯤꯁ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥ ꯅꯤꯡꯇꯝꯕ ꯍꯦꯟꯅꯥ ꯃꯥꯏꯑꯣꯟꯁꯤꯟꯂꯛꯈꯤ , and the princely states which had existed alongside it became responsible for their own external affairs and defence, unless they joined the new India or the new Pakistan. The Manipur State Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja continuing as the head of state.[꯲꯳] Faced with Burma's ambitions to take over the state, in 1949, Maharaja Bodhchandra went to Shillong, where he signed an instrument of accession to merge the kingdom into the Union of India instead. Thereafter, the legislative assembly was dissolved, and in October 1949 Manipur became part of India.[꯲꯴] It was made a Union Territory in 1956.[꯲꯵] and a fully-fledged State in 1972.[꯲꯶]

Kangla Gate, the west entrance to the Kangla Fort

Manipur has had a long record of insurgency and inter-ethnic violence.[꯲꯷][꯲꯸] The first armed opposition group in Manipur, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), was founded in 1964, which declared that it wanted to gain independence from India and from Manipur as a new country. Over time, many more groups formed in Manipur, each with different goals, and deriving support from diverse ethnic groups in Manipur. For example, in 1977 the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was formed in 1978 which Human Rights Watch states as having received arms and training from China. In 1980, the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) was formed. These groups began a spree of bank robberies and attacks on police officers and government buildings. The state government appealed to the central government in New Delhi for support in combating this violence.[꯲꯹]

From 1980–2004, the Indian government referred to Manipur as a disturbed area. This term (designated by the Ministry of Home Affairs or a state governor) refers to a territory where extraordinary laws under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act can be used. The laws allow the military to treat private and public spaces, in the same manner, detain individuals up to 24 hours with unlimited renewals, to perform warrantless searches, and to shoot and kill individuals that break laws, carry weapons, or gather in groups larger than four as well as giving legal immunity to the military.[꯳꯰] Since 1980, the application of AFSPA has been at the heart of concerns about human rights violations in the region, such as arbitrary killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and forced disappearances. Its continued application has led to numerous protests, notably the longstanding hunger strike by Irom Sharmila Chanu[꯳꯱][꯳꯲].

In 2004, the government lifted the disturbed status after a violent attack on a local woman. The rape of a manipuri woman, Thangjam Manorama Devi, by members of the Assam Rifles paramilitary had led to wide protests including a nude protest by the Meira Paibis women association.[꯳꯳]

ꯂꯝꯃꯤꯠ ꯇꯨꯃꯤꯠ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Loktak Lake, the largest lake in the state.

ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤ The state lies at a latitude of ꯲꯳°꯸꯳'N – ꯲꯵°꯶꯸'N and a longitude of ꯹꯳°꯰꯳'E – ꯹꯴°꯷꯸'E ꯃꯔꯆꯇ ꯂꯩ ꯫ ꯑꯄꯨꯟꯕ ꯄꯥꯛ ꯆꯥꯎꯕꯅꯥ ꯲꯲,꯳꯲꯷ square ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯲.꯴꯰꯳꯳×꯱꯰꯱꯱ square feet)ꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯀꯣꯅꯨꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯌꯦꯔꯨꯝꯒꯤ ꯃꯑꯣꯡꯗ ꯂꯩꯕ ꯂꯩꯇꯦꯝ ꯇꯝꯄꯥꯛꯅꯤ ꯄꯥꯛ-ꯆꯥꯎꯕꯅꯥ The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately ꯷꯰꯰ square mile (꯲,꯰꯰꯰ square ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre)ꯅꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯍꯤꯒꯣꯛ ꯃꯆꯨꯒꯤ ꯆꯤꯡꯁꯥꯡꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯀꯣꯏꯁꯤꯟꯂꯤ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯏꯃꯥꯏꯗꯒꯤ ꯷꯹꯰ metre (꯲,꯵꯹꯰ feet) ꯋꯥꯡꯈꯠꯅꯥ ꯂꯩ ꯫[꯳꯴] ꯇꯝꯄꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯒꯤ ꯈꯥ ꯊꯪꯕ ꯃꯥꯏꯀꯩꯗ ꯅꯦꯝꯊꯩ ꯫ ꯆꯤꯡꯁꯥꯡ ꯄꯔꯦꯡꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯑꯌꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯥ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯆꯥꯡ ꯑꯃꯗ ꯂꯩꯍꯟꯂꯤ, ꯑꯋꯥꯡ ꯊꯪꯕꯒꯤ ꯂꯥꯛꯀꯗꯕ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯏꯪꯒꯗꯕꯗꯒꯤ ꯉꯥꯛꯊꯣꯛꯍꯟꯂꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯅꯣꯡꯂꯩ ꯅꯨꯡꯁꯤꯠꯁꯤꯡꯁꯨ ꯉꯥꯛꯊꯣꯛꯏ ꯫

ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯳ꯅꯥ ꯀꯣꯏꯁꯤꯟꯂꯤ ꯅꯒꯥꯂꯦꯟꯅꯥ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯗ, ꯃꯤꯓꯣꯔꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯈꯥꯗ ꯑꯁꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯅꯣꯡꯆꯨꯞꯇꯥ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯌꯥꯟꯃꯥꯔ ꯂꯩꯄꯥꯛꯅꯥ ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛꯇꯥ

A tree amid Manipur hills.

ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯆꯧꯕ ꯇꯨꯔꯦꯜ ꯴ ꯂꯩ: ꯕꯔꯥꯛ ꯇꯨꯔꯦꯜ, ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ ꯇꯨꯔꯦꯜ The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north.[꯳꯵] The water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget.[꯳꯶] (By comparison, India receives 400 Mham (million hectare meters) of rain annually.[꯳꯷])

The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak lake.[꯳꯴] The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang, and Leimatak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions: an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated landforms. These two areas are distinct in physical features and are conspicuous in flora and fauna. The valley region has hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km2. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Tempü (Esü) peak along the border with Nagaland.

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand, and sandy clay, and are varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The topsoil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.[꯳꯸]

ꯅꯥꯄꯤ-ꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Flowers carpeting the foothills

Natural vegetation occupies an area of about ꯱꯴,꯳꯶꯵ square ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯱.꯵꯴꯶꯲×꯱꯰꯱꯱ square feet), nearly 64% of the total geographical area of the state,[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] and consists of short and tall grasses, reeds and bamboos, and trees. Broadly, there are four types of forests: Tropical Semi-evergreen, Dry Temperate Forest, Sub-Tropical Pine, and Tropical Moist Deciduous.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

There are forests of teak, pine, oak, uningthou, leihao, bamboo, and cane. Rubber, tea, coffee, orange, and cardamom are grown in hill areas. Rice is a staple food for Manipuris.

ꯑꯌꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯥ ꯐꯤꯕꯝ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The Dzukou Valley lying on the border of Manipur and Nagaland has a temperate climate.

The climate of Manipur is largely influenced by the topography of this hilly region. Lying 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is wedged among hills on all sides. This northeastern corner of India enjoys a generally amiable climate, though the winters can be chilly. The maximum temperature in the summer months is ꯳꯲ degrees Celsius (꯹꯰ degrees Fahrenheit). The coldest month is January, and the warmest July.

The state is drenched in rains from May until mid-October. It receives an average annual rainfall of ꯱,꯴꯶꯷.꯵ ꯃꯤꯂꯤmetre (꯴.꯸꯱꯵ feet). Rain distribution varies from ꯹꯳꯳ ꯃꯤꯂꯤmetre (꯳.꯰꯶꯱ feet) in Imphal to ꯲,꯵꯹꯳ ꯃꯤꯂꯤmetre (꯸.꯵꯰꯷ feet) in Tamenglong. The precipitation ranges from light drizzle to heavy downpour. The normal rainfall of Manipur enriches the soil and helps in agriculture and irrigation. The South Westerly Monsoon picks up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and heads toward Manipur, hits the eastern Himalaya ranges and produces a massive amount of rain. The climate is salubrious with approximate average annual rainfall varying from ꯹꯳꯳ ꯃꯤꯂꯤmetre (꯳.꯰꯶꯱ feet) at Imphal to ꯲,꯵꯹꯳ ꯃꯤꯂꯤmetre (꯸.꯵꯰꯷ feet) at Tamenglong.

ꯃꯤ ꯀꯥꯡꯂꯨꯞꯁꯤꯡ ꯅꯩꯅꯕ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ has a population of 2,855,794 as per 2011 census.[꯳꯹] Of this total, 57.2% live in the valley districts and the remaining 42.8% in the hill districts. The hills are inhabited mainly by the Nagas, and Kukis, and smaller tribal communities and the valley (plains) mainly by the Meiteis, Manipuri Brahmins (Bamons) and Pangal (Manipuri Muslims). Bishnupriya Manipuri, Naga and Kuki settlements are also found in the valley region, though less in numbers.

The distribution of area, population and density, and literacy rate as per the 2001 Census provisional figures are as below:[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

Demographics of Manipur (2011)
ꯑꯄꯨꯟꯕ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡ ꯲,꯸꯵꯵,꯷꯹꯴
ꯅꯨꯄꯥ (ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡ) ꯱,꯴꯳꯸,꯵꯸꯶
ꯅꯨꯄꯤ (ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡ) ꯱,꯴꯱꯷,꯲꯰꯸
ꯈꯨꯡꯒꯪ ꯃꯤꯁꯤꯡ ꯱,꯷꯳꯶,꯲꯳꯶
Urban Population 834,154
Child Sex Ratio 936 female to 1000 male
ꯑꯀꯨꯡꯕ (per km2) 115
ꯂꯥꯏꯔꯤꯛ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ ꯆꯠꯄꯥ ꯱,꯷꯶꯸,꯱꯸꯱ (꯸꯵.꯴%)
Towns 33

ꯃꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The Meitei[꯱꯰] (synonymous to Manipuri) constitute the majority of the state's population. In 1901, the Meitei were recorded as the main ethnicity of Manipur.[꯴꯰]

Nagas and Kuki/Zo are the major tribe conglomerates. The Nagas in Manipur are further sub-divided into sub-tribes like Anāl, Liangmai, Mao, Maram, Maring, Poumai, Rongmei, Tangkhul, Zeme, etc.[꯴꯱][꯴꯲][꯴꯳]

ꯂꯣꯟꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The official languages are Meitei language and English.

The term Meitei includes Sanamahis, Meitei Christians, Hindus, Meitei-Pangals and Manipuri Brahmins (locally called "Meetei Bamons"). The Meitei language (or Manipuri) is the lingua franca in Manipur and is one of the languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Manipur has a diverse group of ethnic groups speaking different languages and dialects, practising Hinduism, Christianity, Sanamahism, Buddhism, Islam and other folk religions.[꯱꯳]

The languages spoken in Manipur(2011 census) are Meitei (1,522,132), Thadou (223,779), Tangkhul (183,509), Poula (135,349), Kabui (Ruanglat and Inpui) (109,611), Mao (89,011), Nepali (63,756), Paite (55,031), Hmar (49,081), Lianglad (45,546), Vaiphei (39,902), Kuki (37,805), Maram (32,098), Hindi (31,703), Bengali (30,611), Anal (26,508), Zou (25,841), Maring (25,657), Zeme (18,795), Kom (14,528), Gangte (15,274), Chiru (8,475), Khezha (6,977), Mizo (6,500), ), Zeliang (2,727), Assamese (2,453), Monsang (2,381), Dogri (1,853), Tamil (1,657), Marathi (1,583), Malayalam (1,519), Punjabi (1,370),Khasi language (670), , Others (37,636)[꯴꯴].

ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡ ꯂꯤꯆꯠ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯍꯤꯟꯗꯨ ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The Meitei people are a majority in the state of Manipur. According to the 2011 Census of India, about 41.39% of the Manipuri people practice Hinduism, and 41.29% Christianity. A large minority of the Meitei practices Sanamahism. The Hindu population is heavily concentrated in the Manipur valley, among the Meitei people. The districts of Bishnupur, Thoubal, Imphal East, and Imphal West all have Hindu majorities, averaging 67.62% (range 62.27–74.81%) according to the 2011 census data.[꯴꯵]

ꯈ꯭ꯔꯤꯁꯇꯤꯑꯦꯟ ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

St. Joseph's Cathedral at Imphal

Christianity is the religion of 41.29% of the people in the state. It was brought by missionaries to Manipur in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a few Christian schools were established, which introduced Western-type education. Catholic schools such as Little Flower School in Imphal, Don Bosco High School in Imphal, St. Joseph's Convent, and Nirmalabas High School continue to operate in Manipur. A majority of the population in the Hill districts are Christian.[꯴꯵]

ꯁꯅꯥꯃꯍꯤ ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Sanamahi temple at Kangla

Folk religions are practised by the Meitei people. These religions have a long history in Manipur. Sanamahism is the ancient indigenous animistic religion.[꯴꯶] Sanamahi worship is concentrated around the Sun God/Sanamahi. The early Meitei worshiped a Supreme deity, Lainingthou Soralel, and followed their ancestors. Their ancestor worship and animism was based on Umang Lai – ethnic governing deities worshiped in sacred groves. Some of the traditional deities (Lais) whom Meiteis worship are Atiya Sidaba, Pakhangba, Sanamahi, Leimaren, Oknarel, Thangnarel, Panganba, Thangjing, Marjing, Wangbaren, and Koubru. Out of the 233,767 people who opted for the "Other religion" option, 222,315 were Sanamahism, 6,444 were Heraka, 2,032 were Jewish and 1,180 were from other tribal religions such as Tingkao Ragwang Chapriak.

Islam[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Manipuri Muslims, known locally as Meitei Pangal, constitute about 8.3% of the state population as per 2011 census. Sufi saint, Shaikh Shah Jalal d-Dīn al-Mujarrad al-Turk al Naqshbandi, came to Sylhet,[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] and Azan Fakir Baghdadi arrived in 1690 AD in Assam.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] They influenced Manipuri Muslims. They belong to the Sunni group of Hanafi school of thought and there are Arab, Bangladesh, Turani, Bengali and Mughal or Chaghtai Turk sections among Manipuri Muslims.[꯴꯷]

The literacy rate among Muslims is 58.6 percent (male 75 percent and female 41.6 percent) below the state's average of 70.5 percent (male 80.3 percent and female 60.5 percent). In 1995, out of 135,000 Muslims, 5,704 had matriculated from secondary school. There was a total of 1,822 who had graduated in addition to 86 technical and professional graduates. There were 51 Class I Muslim officers including three women, 101 Class II officers and 1,270 and 1,663 employees belonging to Class III and IV categories respectively.[꯴꯸]

ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

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ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯄꯨꯟꯅ ꯐꯝꯊꯧ ꯶꯰ꯅ ꯁꯦꯝꯕꯅꯤ, ꯐꯝ ꯱꯹ꯗꯤ ꯆꯤꯡꯕꯨꯔꯣꯏꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯈꯥꯛꯇꯨꯅ ꯊꯝꯃꯤ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯐꯝ ꯱ꯅ ꯆꯛꯄꯁꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯈꯥꯛꯇꯨꯅ ꯊꯝꯂꯤ ꯫[꯴꯹] ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤꯗꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯲ Parliament of Indiaꯗ ꯂꯣꯛꯁꯥꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯍꯨꯠ ꯑꯣꯏꯅ ꯊꯥꯏ ꯫ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤꯅ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏ ꯱ꯁꯨ ꯔꯥꯏꯖ ꯁꯕ]ꯒꯤ ꯃꯤꯍꯨꯠ ꯊꯥꯏ ꯫[꯵꯰] ꯃꯤꯍꯨꯠꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯃꯨꯛ ꯀꯟꯈꯤꯕꯅ ꯆꯩꯍꯤ ꯵ꯒꯤ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯄꯥꯏꯒꯅꯤ, ꯆꯩꯍꯤ ꯵ ꯃꯉꯥ ꯂꯩꯔꯒ ꯃꯤꯈꯜ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯀꯅꯤ ꯃꯤꯔꯦꯞ ꯊꯥꯗꯣꯛꯅꯔꯒ, ꯃꯤꯈꯜ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯂꯦꯛꯁꯟ ꯀꯃꯤꯁꯟ ꯑꯣꯐ ꯏꯟꯗꯤꯌꯥꯒꯤ ꯃꯈꯥꯕ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯀꯅꯤ ꯫[꯵꯱]

ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯑꯣꯇꯣꯅꯣꯃꯁ ꯀꯥꯎꯟꯁꯤꯜ ꯱ ꯂꯩ ꯫

ꯂꯥꯟꯍꯧꯕꯒꯤ ꯏꯍꯧ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The violence in Manipur extends beyond the conflict between Indian security forces and insurgent armed groups. There is violence between the Meiteis, Nagas, Kukis, and other tribal groups.[꯲꯹] Splinter groups have arisen within some of the armed groups, and disagreement between them is rife. Other than the UNLF, PLA, and PREPAK, Manipuri insurgent groups include the Revolutionary Peoples Front (RPF), Manipur Liberation Front Army (MLFA), Kanglei Yawol Kanba Lup (KYKL), Revolutionary Joint Committee (RJC), Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), Peoples United Liberation Front (PULF), Manipur Naga People Front (MNPF), National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-K), National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-I/M), United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF), Kuki National Front (KNF), Kuki National Army (KNA), Kuki Defence Force (KDF), Kuki Democratic Movement (KDM), Kuki National Organisation (KNO), Kuki Security Force (KSF), Chin Kuki Revolutionary Front (CKRF), Kom Rem Peoples Convention (KRPC), Zomi Revolutionary Volunteers (ZRV), Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), Zomi Reunification Organisation (ZRO), and Hmar Peoples Convention (HPC).[꯵꯲][꯲꯹]

The Meitei insurgent groups seek independence from India. The Kuki insurgent groups want a separate state for the Kukis to be carved out from the present state of Manipur. The Kuki insurgent groups are under two umbrella organisations: the Kuki National Organisation (KNO) and United Peoples Forum.[꯵꯳] The Nagas wish to annex part of Manipur and merge with a greater Nagaland or Nagalim, which is in conflict with Meitei insurgent demands for the integrity of their vision of an independent state. There have been many tensions between the tribes and numerous clashes between Naga and Kukis, Meiteis and Muslims.[꯲꯹]

According to SATP, there has been a dramatic decline in fatalities in Manipur since 2009. In 2009, 77 civilians died (about 3 per 100,000 people).[꯵꯴] From 2010 onward, about 25 civilians have died in militant-related violence (about 1 per 100,000 people), dropping further to 21 civilian deaths in 2013 (or 0.8 per 100,000 people). However, there were 76 explosions in 2013 compared to 107 in 2012. Different groups have claimed responsibility for the explosions, some claiming they were targeting competing militant groups, others claiming their targets were state and central government officials.[꯵꯵] As a point of comparison, the average annual global rate of violent death between 2004 and 2009 was 7.9 per 100,000 people.[꯵꯶]

The CM Biren Singh used the National Security Act on a journalist who criticized him by calling him as 'puppet'. NSA is meant to be used when there is grave danger to society not to stifle dissent. These acts further cement isolation and insurgency among locals.[꯵꯷]

ꯁꯦꯟꯃꯤꯠꯂꯣꯟ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Bamboo is common in Manipur, and an important contributor to its economy as well as cuisine. Above is soibum yendem eromba, a bamboo shoot cuisine of Manipur.

The 2012–2013 gross state domestic product of Manipur at market prices was about ꯱꯰,꯱꯸꯸ crore ({{INRConvert/ꯑꯔꯥꯟꯕ ꯐꯣꯡꯗꯣꯛꯄ: ꯁꯛꯈꯪꯗꯕꯥ ꯃꯆꯠꯀꯤ ꯈꯨꯗꯝ "[".|10188|7||USD|year={{{year}}}}}).[꯵꯸] Its economy is primarily agriculture, forestry, cottage and trade driven.[꯵꯹] Manipur acts as India's "Gateway to the East" through Moreh and Tamu towns, the land route for trade between India and Burma and other countries in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Manipur has the highest number of handicrafts units and the highest number of craftspersons in the northeastern region of India.[꯶꯰]

Electricity[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Manipur produced about ꯰.꯱ gigawatt-hour (꯰.꯳꯶ ꯇꯦꯔꯥjoule) of electricity in 2010 with its infrastructure.[꯶꯱] The state has hydroelectric power generation potential, estimated to be over ꯲ gigawatt-hour (꯷.꯲ ꯇꯦꯔꯥjoule). As of 2010, if half of this potential is realised, it is estimated that this would supply 24/7 electricity to all residents, with a surplus for sale, as well as supplying the Burma power grid.[꯶꯲]

Agriculture[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Manipur's climate and soil conditions make it ideally suited for horticultural crops. Growing there are rare and exotic medicinal and aromatic plants.[꯶꯰] Some cash crops suited for Manipur include Lychee, Cashew, Walnut, Orange, Lemon, Pineapple, Papaya, Passion Fruit, Peach, Pear and Plum.[꯵꯹] The state is covered with over ꯳,꯰꯰꯰ square ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯳.꯲×꯱꯰꯱꯰ square feet) of bamboo forests, making it one of India's largest contributor to its bamboo industry.[꯶꯰]

Transportation infrastructure[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Imphal airport is the second largest airport in India's northeast.

Tulihal Airport, Changangei, Imphal, the only airport of Manipur, connects directly with Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, and Agartala. It has been upgraded to an international airport. As India's second largest airport in the northeast, it serves as a key logistical centre for northeastern states.The Tulihal Airport has been renamed Bir Tikendrajit Airport.[꯱꯵] National Highway NH-39 links Manipur with the rest of the country through the railway stations at Dimapur in Nagaland at a distance of ꯲꯱꯵ ꯀꯤm (꯱꯳꯴ mi) from Imphal.

National Highway 53 (India) connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is ꯲꯶꯹ ꯀꯤm (꯱꯶꯷ mi) away from Imphal. The road network of Manipur, with a length of ꯷,꯱꯷꯰ ꯀꯤm (꯴,꯴꯶꯰ mi) connects all the important towns and distant villages. However, the road condition throughout the state is often deplorable.[꯶꯳][꯶꯴] In 2010, Indian government announced that it is considering an Asian infrastructure network from Manipur to Vietnam.[꯶꯵] The proposed Trans-Asian Railway (TAR), if constructed, will pass through Manipur, connecting India to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Tourism[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The tourist season is from October to February when it is often sunny without being hot and humid.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] The culture features martial arts, dance, theatre and sculpture. Greenery accompanies a moderate climate. The seasonal Shirui Lily plant at Ukhrul (district), Dzukou valley at Senapati, Sangai (Brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lake are among the rarities of the area. Polo, which can be called a royal game, originated in Manipur.

ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ (ꯀꯣꯅꯨꯡ)[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

A view of Imphal City

The city is inhabited by the Meitei, who predominate, also Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) and other tribes. The city contains the Tulihal Airport. The district is divided into East and West. The Khuman Lampak Sports Complex was built for the 1997 National Games. The stadium is used for a sports venue. It also contains a cyclists' velodrome. Most of the imported goods are sold here at its Paona Bazaar, Gambhir Singh Shopping Complex and Leima Plaza. Shree Govindajee Temple, Andro village, and the Manipur State Museum are in the city.

ꯄꯥꯠ ꯑꯃꯗꯤ ꯏꯊꯠꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Rare birds and flowers include: Nongin[꯶꯶] is the state bird (top) and Siroi Lily[꯶꯷] is its state flower (middle). Leimaram falls, bottom, is a local attraction.

꯴꯸ ꯀꯤm (꯳꯰ mi) from ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ, lies the largest fresh water lake in northeast India, the ꯂꯣꯛꯇꯥꯛ ꯄꯥꯠ, a miniature inland sea. There is a tourist bungalow atop Sendra Island. Life on the lake includes small islands that are floating weed on which live the lake people, the blue waters of the lake, and colourful water plants. There is a ꯁꯦꯟꯗꯔꯥ tourist home with an attached cafeteria in the middle of the lake. ꯑꯇꯥꯎꯕ ꯏꯊꯠꯁꯤꯡ are made out of the tangle of watery weeds and other plants. The wetland is swampy and is favourable for a number of species. It is in the district of ꯕꯤꯁꯅꯨꯄꯨꯔ. The etymology of Loktak is "lok = stream / tak = the end" (End of the Streams).[꯳꯴] Sendra park and resort is opening on the top of Sendra hills and attracting the tourist.

Hills and valleys[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Kaina is a hillock about ꯹꯲꯱ metre (꯳,꯰꯲꯲ feet) above sea level. It is a sacred place for Manipuri Hindus. The legend is that, Shri Govindajee appeared in the dream of his devotee, Shri Jai Singh Maharaja, and asked the saintly king to install in a temple, an image of Shri Govindajee. It was to be carved out of a jack fruit tree, which was then growing at Kaina. It is ꯲꯹ ꯀꯤm (꯱꯸ mi) from Imphal. The Dzükou Valley is in Senapati district bordering with Kohima. There are seasonal flowers and number of flora and fauna. It is at an altitude of ꯲,꯴꯳꯸ metre (꯷,꯹꯹꯹ feet) above sea level, behind the Japfü Peak in Nagaland. The rare Dzükou lily is found only in this valley.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

Eco tourism[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Sangai, the state animal, at Keibul Lamjao National Park. In the wild, it has a habit of waiting and looking back at viewers.[꯶꯸]

Keibul Lamjao National Park, ꯴꯸ ꯀꯤm (꯳꯰ mi) away from Imphal is an abode of the rare and endangered species of brow antlered deer. This ecosystem contains 17 rare species of mammals.[꯳꯴] It is the only floating national park of the world[꯶꯹].[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] Six ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯳.꯷ mile) to the west of Imphal, at the foot of the pine growing hillocks at Iroisemba on the Imphal-Kangchup Road are the Zoological Gardens. Some brow antlered deer (Sangai) are housed there.

Waterfalls[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Sadu Chiru waterfall is near Ichum Keirap village[꯷꯰] ꯲꯷ ꯀꯤm (꯱꯷ mi) from Imphal, in the Sadar hill area, Senapati district. This consists of three falls with the first fall about ꯳꯰ metre (꯹꯸ feet) high. Agape Park is in the vicinity. It is owned and managed by Kamlun Telien of Ichum Keirap.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

Natural caves[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Thalon Cave (around ꯹꯱꯰ metre (꯲,꯹꯹꯰ feet) above sea level) is one of the historical sites of Manipur under Tamenglong district. It is around ꯱꯸꯵ ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯶,꯰꯷,꯰꯰꯰ feet) from the state capital and around ꯳꯰ ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯹꯸,꯰꯰꯰ feet) from Tamenglong district headquarters in north side. From Thalon village, this cave is ꯴–꯵ ꯀꯤꯂꯣmetre (꯱꯳,꯰꯰꯰–꯱꯶,꯰꯰꯰ feet).[꯷꯱] Khangkhui Cave is a natural limestone cave in Ukhrul district. The big hall in the cave is the darbar hall of the Devil King living deep inside while the northern hall is the royal bedroom, according to local folklore. During World War II, villagers sought shelter here. This cave is an hour's trek from Khangkui village.[꯷꯲]

ꯃꯍꯩ-ꯃꯁꯤꯟ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Manipur schools are run by the state and central government or by private organisation. Instruction is mainly in English. Under the 10+2+3 plan, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination). The main universities are Manipur University, Central Agricultural University, National Institute of Technology, Manipur, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Manipur, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences and Indira Gandhi National Tribal University.

Manipur is home to India's first floating elementary school: Loktak Elementary Floating School in Loktak Lake.

ꯄꯨꯊꯣꯛꯄꯨꯁꯤꯟ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯅꯣꯡꯊꯛ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Imphal International Airport is situated in the capital ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ which connects direct flights from ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ to ꯀꯜꯀꯥꯇ, ꯒꯨꯋꯥꯍꯇꯤ, New Delhi, Bangalore and Agartala.

ꯂꯝꯕꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯊꯪꯅꯕ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠꯁꯤꯡꯒ ꯅꯦꯁꯅꯦꯜ ꯍꯥꯏꯋꯦꯁꯤꯡꯒ ꯁꯝꯅꯩ ꯫

ꯔꯦꯜ ꯂꯝꯕꯤ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯗ ꯔꯦꯜꯂꯝꯕꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯁꯟ ꯑꯃꯥ ꯂꯩ, ꯖꯤꯔꯤꯕꯥꯝꯗ ꯫

ꯏꯅꯥꯠ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Pena is an ancient Manipur musical instrument, particularly popular among the Meitei people.

Secular theatre is mostly confined to themes that are not religious; it is performed in the secular or profane spheres. In these are Shumang lila and Phampak lila (stage drama). Shumang lila is very popular. Etymologically Shumang lila is the combination of "Shumang" (courtyard) and "Lila" (play or performance). It is performed in an area of 13×13 ft in the centre of any open space, in a very simple style without a raised stage, set design, or heavy props such as curtains, background scenery, and visual effects. It uses one table and two chairs, kept on one side of the performance space. Its claim as the "theatre of the masses" is underlined by the way it is performed in the middle of an audience that surrounds it, leaving one passage as entrance and exit.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

The world of Phampak lila (stage drama) performed in the proscenium theatre is similar, in form, to the Western theatrical model and Indian Natyasastra model though its contents are indigenous. The so-called modern theatre descended on Manipur theatre culture with the performance of Pravas Milan (1902) under the enthusiastic patronage of Sir Churchand Maharaj (1891–1941). The pace of theatrical movement was geared up with the institution of groups such as Manipur Dramatic Union (MDU) (1930), Arian Theatre (1935), Chitrangada Natya Mandir (1936), Society Theatre (1937), Rupmahal (1942), Cosmopolitan Dramatic Union (1968), and the Chorus Repertory Theatre of Ratan Thiyam (1976).[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] These groups started experimenting with types of plays apart from historical and Puranic ones. Today Manipur theatre is well respected because of excellent productions shown in India and abroad. Manipur plays, both Shumang lila and stage lila, have been a regular feature in the annual festival of the National School of Drama, New Delhi.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

The Chorus Repertory Theatre, Imphal, founded by Ratan Thiyam

Iskcon led by Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami started a network of schools in Northeastern India, where more than 4,000 students receive education centred on Vaishnava spiritual values. In 1989 he founded "Ranganiketan Manipuri Cultural Arts Troupe", which has approximately 600 performances at over 300 venues in over 15 countries. Ranganiketan (literally "House of Colorful Arts") is a group of more than 20 dancers, musicians, singers, martial artists, choreographers, and craft artisans.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ] Some of them have received international acclaim.

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯖꯒꯣꯏ (Ras Lila)[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The Shrine – the main theatre

Manipur dance also known as Jagoi,[꯷꯳] is one of the major Indian classical dance forms,[꯷꯴] named after the state of Manipur.[꯷꯵][꯷꯶] It is particularly known for its Hindu Vaishnavism themes, and exquisite performances of love-inspired dance drama of Radha-Krishna called Raslila.[꯷꯵][꯷꯳][꯷꯷] However, the dance is also performed to themes related to Shaivism, Shaktism and regional deities such as Umang Lai during Lai Haraoba.[꯷꯸][꯷꯹] The roots of Manipur dance, as with all classical Indian dances, is the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, but with influences from the culture fusion between India and Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia.[꯸꯰]

Chorus Repertory Theatre[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The auditorium of the theatre is on the outskirts of Imphal and the campus stretches for about ꯲ acre ([]%s). It has housing and working quarters to accommodate self-sufficiency of life. The theatre association has churned out internationally acclaimed plays like Chakravyuha and Uttarpriyadashi. Its 25 years of existence in theatre had disciplined its performers to a world of excellence. Chakravyuha taken from the Mahabharat epic had won Fringe Firsts Award, 1987 at the Edinburgh International Theater Festival. Chakravyuha deals with the story of Abhimanyu (son of Arjun) of his last battle and approaching death, whereas Uttarpriyadashi is an 80-minute exposition of Emperor Ashoka's redemption.[ꯑꯀꯨꯞꯄ ꯋꯥꯔꯣꯜ ꯋꯥꯠꯂꯤ]

ꯁꯥꯅꯥ-ꯈꯣꯠꯅꯕ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

The rules-based Polo game in 19th century Manipur (above), and modern Polo in the 21st century.

Mukna is a popular form of wrestling.[꯸꯱] Mukna Kangjei, or Khong Kangjei, is a game which combines the arts of mukna (wrestling hockey) and Kangjei (Cane Stick) to play the ball made of seasoned bamboo roots.[꯸꯲][꯸꯳]

Yubi lakpi is a traditional full contact game played in Manipur, India, using a coconut, which has some notable similarities to rugby.[꯸꯳] Yubi lakpi literally means "coconut snatching". The coconut is greased to make it slippery. There are rules of the game, as with all Manipur sports.[꯸꯴] The coconut serves the purpose of a ball and is offered to the king, the chief guest or the judges before the game begins. The aim is to run while carrying the greased coconut and physically cross over the goal line, while the other team tackles and blocks any such attempt as well as tries to grab the coconut and score on its own. In Manipur's long history, Yubi lakpi was the annual official game, attended by the king, over the Hindu festival of Shree Govindajee.[꯸꯵] It is like the game of rugby,[꯸꯶] or American football.[꯸꯷]

Oolaobi (Woo-Laobi) is an outdoor game mainly played by females. Meitei mythology believes that UmangLai Heloi-Taret (seven deities–seven fairies) played this game on the Courtyard of the temple of Umang Lai Lairembi. The number of participants is not fixed but are divided into two groups (size as per agreement). Players are divided as into Raiders (Attackers) or Defenders (Avoiders).[꯸꯳] Hiyang tannaba, also called Hi Yangba Tanaba, is a traditional boat rowing race and festivity of the Panas.[꯸꯳]

ꯁꯒꯣꯜ ꯀꯥꯡꯖꯩ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

Captain Robert Stewart and Lieutenant Joseph Sherer[꯸꯸] of the British colonial era first watched locals play a rules-based pulu or sagolkangjei (literally, horse and stick) game in 1859. They adopted its rules, calling the game polo, and playing it on their horses. The game spread among the British in Calcutta and then to England.[꯱꯷][꯸꯹]

Apart from these games, some outdoor children's games are fading in popularity. Some games such as Khutlokpi, Phibul Thomba, and Chaphu Thugaibi remain very popular elsewhere, such as in Cambodia. They are played especially during the Khmer New Year.[꯹꯰]

First of its kind in India, National Sports University will be constructed in Manipur.[꯹꯱]

ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯂꯥꯏꯍꯔꯥꯎꯕ ꯖꯒꯣꯏ

ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒꯤ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯁꯤꯡꯗꯤ ꯂꯨꯏ-ꯉꯥꯏ-ꯅꯤ, ꯅꯤꯡꯉꯣꯜ ꯆꯥꯛꯀꯧꯕ, ꯏꯃꯣꯏꯅꯨ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ, ꯃꯦꯔꯥ ꯍꯧꯆꯣꯡꯕ, ꯁꯤꯔꯨꯏ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ, ꯌꯥꯎꯁꯪ, ꯒꯥꯟ-ꯉꯥꯏ, ꯆꯨꯝꯐꯥ ꯍꯩꯀ꯭ꯔꯨ ꯍꯤꯗꯣꯡꯕ, ꯏꯗ ꯑꯜ-ꯐꯤꯇꯔ, ꯏꯗ ꯑꯜ-ꯑꯗꯥ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯈ꯭ꯔꯤꯁꯃꯥꯁ ꯃꯊꯛꯇꯥ ꯄꯟꯂꯤꯕ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯁꯤꯡ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯊꯥꯕꯥꯟꯗ ꯌꯦꯡꯉꯒ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯄ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯅꯥ ꯑꯌꯥꯝꯕꯅꯤ ꯫

ꯁꯉꯥꯏ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯲꯰꯱꯷ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯱꯰ꯅꯤ ꯆꯨꯞꯅ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯈꯤ ꯫ ꯁꯉꯥꯏ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯗ ꯐꯪꯂꯤꯕ ꯁꯥꯖꯤ ꯃꯈꯜ ꯃꯂꯦꯝꯒꯤ ꯃꯐꯝ ꯑꯇꯩꯗ ꯐꯪꯗꯔꯕ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯇꯥꯡꯕ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯒ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠꯀꯤ ꯁꯥ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯌꯣꯈꯠꯄꯒꯤ ꯄꯥꯟꯗꯝꯗ ꯍꯧꯗꯣꯛꯈꯤꯕ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯃꯁꯤ ꯏꯪ ꯀꯨꯝꯖꯥ ꯲꯰꯱꯰ ꯗꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯈꯤꯕꯅꯤ ꯍꯥꯟꯅ ꯄꯥꯟꯂꯝꯕ ꯂꯩꯉꯥꯛꯁꯤꯡꯅꯥ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯂꯝꯕ ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ ꯇꯨꯔꯤꯖꯝ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯕꯨ ꯃꯃꯤꯡ ꯑꯣꯟꯊꯣꯛꯇꯨꯅꯥ ꯫

ꯅꯤꯡꯉꯣꯜ ꯆꯥꯛꯀꯧꯕ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯅꯤꯡꯉꯣꯜ ꯆꯥꯛꯀꯧꯕ ꯊꯧꯔꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯆꯩꯍꯤ ꯈꯨꯗꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯍꯤꯌꯥꯡꯒꯩ ꯊꯥꯒꯤ ꯲ꯅꯤ ꯄꯥꯟꯕ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯅꯩ ꯫[꯹꯲] ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯊꯧꯔꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯂꯥꯞꯊꯣꯛꯅꯕ ꯏꯃꯨꯡ ꯃꯅꯨꯡ ꯄꯨꯟꯅ ꯄꯨꯟꯃꯤꯟꯅꯕꯒꯤ ꯇꯥꯟꯖ ꯱ ꯄꯤ ꯫ ꯅꯤꯡꯉꯣꯜ ꯆꯥꯛꯀꯧꯕ ꯍꯥꯏꯅ ꯈꯪꯅꯔꯤꯕꯒꯤ ꯃꯔꯝꯗꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯑꯁꯤꯗ ꯃꯄꯥꯝ ꯊꯥꯗꯣꯛꯂꯝꯂꯒ ꯂꯨꯍꯣꯡꯈꯔꯕ ꯅꯤꯡꯉꯣꯜ ꯃꯈꯩꯕꯨ ꯃꯄꯥ, ꯃꯃꯥ, ꯃꯕꯨꯡ‍‍, ꯃꯧꯄꯥ, ꯃꯆꯦ, ꯃꯆꯜꯁꯤꯡꯅ ꯆꯥꯛꯀꯧꯗꯨꯅ ꯄꯨꯟꯅ ꯊꯦꯡꯅꯃꯤꯟꯅꯕꯒꯤ ꯇꯥꯟꯖ ꯑꯁꯤꯗꯒꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯊꯧꯔꯝ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯏꯃꯨꯡ ꯃꯅꯨꯡ ꯃꯔꯤ ꯐꯅ ꯂꯩꯅꯕꯅꯤ ꯫

ꯀꯨꯠ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯂꯧꯔꯣꯛꯄ ꯃꯇꯝ ꯅꯣꯕꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯊꯥꯗ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯄ,[꯹꯳][꯹꯴] ꯃꯁꯤꯒꯤ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯀꯨꯀꯤ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞꯁꯤꯡꯅ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯄ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯑꯃꯅꯤ ꯫ ꯆꯩꯍꯤ ꯈꯨꯗꯤꯡꯒꯤ ꯅꯣꯕꯦꯝꯕꯔ ꯱ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁ꯭ꯇꯦꯠꯀꯤ ꯂꯦꯞꯄ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯗꯤ ꯀꯨꯠ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯅ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯤ ꯫

ꯌꯥꯎꯁꯪ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯆꯥꯎꯁꯪ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯂꯝꯇꯥ ꯊꯥꯒꯤ ꯊꯥꯅꯤꯜ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠꯇꯒꯤ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯅꯩ ꯫ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯑꯁꯤꯗ ꯃꯥꯏꯆꯧ ꯂꯧꯔꯦꯝꯕꯝ ꯈꯣꯡꯅꯥꯡꯊꯥꯕ ꯄꯣꯛꯈꯤ ꯍꯥꯏꯅ ꯃꯤꯌꯥꯝꯅ ꯊꯥꯖꯅꯩ ꯫ ꯊꯥꯕꯜ ꯆꯣꯡꯕ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯍꯧꯖꯤꯛꯇꯤ ꯌꯥꯎꯁꯪ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯒꯤ ꯃꯅꯨꯡ ꯌꯥꯎꯗ ꯌꯥꯗ꯭ꯔꯕ ꯑꯧꯒ꯭ꯔꯤ ꯖꯒꯣꯏ ꯱ ꯑꯣꯏꯔꯦ ꯫[꯹꯵]

ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯎꯕ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯎꯕ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯁꯖꯤꯕꯨ ꯊꯥꯒꯤ ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥ ꯄꯥꯟꯕ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠꯇ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯀꯏ ꯫

ꯒꯥꯟ-ꯉꯥꯏ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯒꯥꯟ-ꯉꯥꯏ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩ ꯑꯁꯤ ꯓꯦꯂꯤꯌꯥꯔꯣꯡ ꯐꯨꯔꯨꯞꯀꯤ ꯌꯥꯝꯅꯥ ꯆꯥꯎꯕ ꯀꯨꯝꯍꯩꯅꯤ. ꯃꯁꯤ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯵ꯅꯤ ꯆꯨꯞꯅꯥ ꯄꯥꯡꯊꯣꯛꯏ ꯑꯃꯁꯨꯡ ꯃꯁꯤ ꯃꯂꯤꯌꯥꯐꯝ ꯄꯥꯜꯆꯥ ꯀꯨꯝꯁꯤꯡ ꯊꯄꯥꯂꯣꯟ ꯗ ꯌꯨꯝꯐꯝ ꯑꯣꯏꯗꯨꯅꯥ ꯋꯥꯛꯆꯤꯡ ꯱꯳ꯅꯤ ꯄꯥꯟꯕ ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠꯇꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯏ ꯫

ꯁꯤꯡꯊꯥꯕ ꯌꯥꯕ ꯃꯤꯑꯣꯏꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯁꯤꯖꯨ ꯌꯦꯡꯉꯨ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

ꯃꯇꯦꯡ ꯂꯧꯐꯝꯁꯤꯡ[ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯨ | ꯁꯦꯝꯒꯠꯂꯛꯄꯒꯤ ꯍꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝ]

  1. http://www.uniindia.com/guv-dr-najma-heptulla-presents-ustad-bismillah-khan-puraskar/east/news/1702349.html
  2. BJP leader Biren Singh sworn in as Manipur Chief Minister Archived ꯱꯵ ꯂꯝꯇꯥ ꯲꯰꯱꯷ at the Wayback Machine, India Today (15 March 2017)
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  7. Naorem Sanajaoba (editor), Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization, Volume 4, Chapter 4: K Murari, ISBN 978-8170998532
  8. Trade connection of Manipur with Southeast Asia in Pre British period Part 2 by Budha Kamei.
  9. Naorem Sanajaoba (Editor), Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization, Volume 4, Chapter 2: NT Singh, ISBN 978-8170998532
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  17. ꯱꯷.꯰ ꯱꯷.꯱ Lieutenant (later Major General) Joseph Ford Sherer, Assistant to the Superintendent of Cachar, with his bearers, Manipur, 1861 Archived ꯳ ꯃꯦꯂꯥ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine National Army Museum, United Kingdom; Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Volume 82, Issues 337–340, page 238
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  21. Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications, 15–18. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2. 
  22. N. Lokendra (1998). The Unquiet Valley: Society, Economy, and Politics of Manipur (1891-1950). Mittal Publications, 36–38. ISBN 978-81-7099-696-5. 
  23. [https://cadindia.clpr.org.in/historical_constitutions/manipur_state_constitution_act__1947_1st%20January%201947 Manipur State Constitution Act 1947
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  28. "Manipur, India - A safe house for dangerous men" Archived ꯱꯴ ꯏꯉꯦꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine The Economist (9 March 2007)
  29. ꯲꯹.꯰ ꯲꯹.꯱ ꯲꯹.꯲ ꯲꯹.꯳ "Background: Conflict in Manipur" Archived ꯲꯴ ꯂꯥꯡꯄꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯵ at the Wayback Machine Human Rights Watch (2008)
  30. McDuie-Ra, Duncan. 2016. Borderland city in new India: Frontier to gateway (pp. 15, 17–19). Amsterdam University Press.
  31. Archived copy.
  32. Archived copy.
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  34. ꯳꯴.꯰ ꯳꯴.꯱ ꯳꯴.꯲ ꯳꯴.꯳ fate of loktak lake. e-pao.net. Retrieved on 1 September 2015
  35. Haokip, Shri Ngamthang (2007) "Basine Delineation Map of Manipur" Archived ꯲꯶ ꯂꯝꯇꯥ ꯲꯰꯰꯹ at the Wayback Machine, Profile on State of Environment Report of Manipur, 2006–07, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Manipur, p. 4
  36. Government of Manipur꯫ "Irrigation And Water Management" ꯫ ꯆꯠꯅꯕ ꯆꯩꯆꯠ - 31 October 2010 ꯫ ꯫ ꯂꯤꯗꯨꯅ ꯊꯝꯂꯦ ꯑꯁꯦꯡꯕ ꯃꯐꯝꯗ 26 June 2011 ꯫ 
  37. Centre for Science and Environment (India)꯫ "The Arithmetic of Water in India" ꯫ ꯆꯠꯅꯕ ꯆꯩꯆꯠ - 31 October 2010 ꯫  
  38. Director of Commerce and Industries, Manipur꯫ "Soil and Climate of Manipur" ꯫ ꯆꯠꯅꯕ ꯆꯩꯆꯠ - 31 October 2010 ꯫  
  39. Manipur Population Census data 2011. Census 2011. Retrieved on 2 September 2017
  40. census 1901
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  42. https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/103655/7/07_chapter%204.pdf
  43. S. R. Tohring (2010). Violence and identity in North-east India: Naga-Kuki conflict. Mittal Publications, xv–xvii. ISBN 978-81-8324-344-5. 
  44. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-16.html
  45. ꯴꯵.꯰ ꯴꯵.꯱ Census of India : C-1 Population By Religious Community. censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 1 September 2015
  46. Bertil Lintner (2015). Great Game East: India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier. Yale University Press, 113. ISBN 978-0-300-19567-5. 
  47. Evolution of clan system Manipuri Muslim 1. e-pao.net. Retrieved on 1 September 2015
  48. Muslims in Manipur: A look at their socio-economic condition. twocircles.net. Retrieved on 1 September 2015
  49. State/UT wise Seats in the Assembly and their Reservation Status. Election Commission of India. Retrieved on 23 May 2018
  50. Manipur Government Archived ꯲꯲ ꯃꯦꯂꯥ ꯲꯰꯱꯶ at the Wayback Machine, Govt of India
  51. ECI Manipur Archived ꯱꯹ ꯀꯥꯂꯦꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯷ at the Wayback Machine, Govt of India
  52. Singh꯫ Vijaita꯫ "Centre inks peace accord with Naga insurgent outfit" (in en)꯫ The Hindu 
  53. 仏壇修理・洗浄なら石川県羽咋市の宮本仏檀店. kukination.net. Retrieved on 1 September 2015
  54. State wise Indian fatalities, 1994-2013 Lua ꯑꯔꯥꯟꯕ: bad argument #2 to 'formatDate' (not a valid timestamp) ꯫ Militancy and Terrorism Database, SATP, New Delhi
  55. Manipur Assessment - Year 2014 Archived ꯴ ꯏꯉꯦꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine SATP, New Delhi
  56. Global Burden of Armed Violence Archived ꯲꯴ ꯂꯥꯡꯄꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯵ at the Wayback Machine Chapter 2, Geneva Declaration, Switzerland (2011)
  57. "Misusing NSA: the detention of a Manipur journalist" (in en-IN)꯫ The Hindu꯫ 21 December 2018 ꯫ 
  58. State wise : Population, GSDP, Per Capita Income and Growth Rate Archived ꯱꯱ ꯍꯤꯌꯥꯡꯀꯩ ꯲꯰꯱꯳ at the Wayback Machine Planning Commission, Govt of India; See third table 2011-2012 fiscal year, 16th row
  59. ꯵꯹.꯰ ꯵꯹.꯱ G. Hiamguanglung Gonmei, "Hills Economy of Manipur: A Structural Change", Journal of North East India Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, January–June 2013, pp. 61–73
  60. ꯶꯰.꯰ ꯶꯰.꯱ ꯶꯰.꯲ "Manipur Economy - Snapshot" Archived ꯲ ꯏꯉꯦꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine IBEF
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  65. "Rail link from Manipur to Vietnam on cards: Tharoor – Times Of India"꯫ The Times of India 
  66. State bird Nongin Archived ꯲꯷ ꯊꯧꯋꯥꯟ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine Government of Manipur
  67. State flower SHIRUI LILY Archived ꯳ ꯐꯥꯏꯂꯦꯜ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine Government of Manipur
  68. State animal Sangai Archived ꯱ ꯐꯥꯏꯂꯦꯜ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine Government of Manipur
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  74. Williams 2004, pp. 83-84, the other major classical Indian dances are: Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Odissi, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Cchau, Satriya, Yaksagana and Bhagavata Mela.
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  82. Gurmeet Kanwal, Defenders of the Dawn, ISBN 978-8170622796, pp 48
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  88. Joseph Ford Sherer is called the Father of English Polo; see Horace A. Laffaye (2009), The Evolution of Polo, ISBN 978-0786438143, Chapter 2; National Army Museum Silver salver presented to Captain Joseph Ford Sherer Archived ꯲꯸ ꯍꯤꯌꯥꯡꯀꯩ ꯲꯰꯱꯴ at the Wayback Machine United Kingdom
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